PHP 5.6.0RC3 is available

Using PHP from the command line

As of version 4.3.0, PHP supports a new SAPI type (Server Application Programming Interface) named CLI which means Command Line Interface. As the name implies, this SAPI type main focus is on developing shell (or desktop as well) applications with PHP. There are quite a few differences between the CLI SAPI and other SAPIs which are explained in this chapter. It's worth mentioning that CLI and CGI are different SAPI's although they do share many of the same behaviors.

The CLI SAPI was released for the first time with PHP 4.2.0, but was still experimental and had to be explicitly enabled with --enable-cli when running ./configure. Since PHP 4.3.0 the CLI SAPI is no longer experimental and the option --enable-cli is on by default. You may use --disable-cli to disable it.

As of PHP 4.3.0, the name, location and existence of the CLI/CGI binaries will differ depending on how PHP is installed on your system. By default when executing make, both the CGI and CLI are built and placed as sapi/cgi/php-cgi and sapi/cli/php respectively, in your PHP source directory. You will note that both are named php. What happens during make install depends on your configure line. If a module SAPI is chosen during configure, such as apxs, or the --disable-cgi option is used, the CLI is copied to {PREFIX}/bin/php during make install otherwise the CGI is placed there. So, for example, if --with--apxs is in your configure line then the CLI is copied to {PREFIX}/bin/php during make install. If you want to override the installation of the CGI binary, use make install-cli after make install. Alternatively you can specify --disable-cgi in your configure line.

Забележка: Because both --enable-cli and --enable-cgi are enabled by default, simply having --enable-cli in your configure line does not necessarily mean the CLI will be copied as {PREFIX}/bin/php during make install.

The Windows packages between PHP 4.2.0 and PHP 4.2.3 distributed the CLI as php-cli.exe, living in the same folder as the CGI php.exe. Starting with PHP 4.3.0 the Windows package distributes the CLI as php.exe in a separate folder named cli, so cli/php.exe . Starting with PHP 5, the CLI is distributed in the main folder, named php.exe. The CGI version is distributed as php-cgi.exe.

As of PHP 5, a new php-win.exe file is distributed. This is equal to the CLI version, except that php-win doesn't output anything and thus provides no console (no "dos box" appears on the screen). This behavior is similar to php-gtk. You should configure with --enable-cli-win32.

Забележка: What SAPI do I have?
From a shell, typing php -v will tell you whether php is CGI or CLI. See also the function php_sapi_name() and the constant PHP_SAPI.

Забележка: A Unix manual page was added in PHP 4.3.2. You may view this by typing man php in your shell environment.

Remarkable differences of the CLI SAPI compared to other SAPIs:

  • Unlike the CGI SAPI, no headers are written to the output.

    Though the CGI SAPI provides a way to suppress HTTP headers, there's no equivalent switch to enable them in the CLI SAPI.

    CLI is started up in quiet mode by default, though the -q and --no-header switches are kept for compatibility so that you can use older CGI scripts.

    It does not change the working directory to that of the script. (-C and --no-chdir switches kept for compatibility)

    Plain text error messages (no HTML formatting).

  • There are certain php.ini directives which are overridden by the CLI SAPI because they do not make sense in shell environments:

    Overridden php.ini directives
    Directive CLI SAPI default value Comment
    html_errors FALSE It can be quite hard to read the error message in your shell when it's cluttered with all those meaningless HTML tags, therefore this directive defaults to FALSE.
    implicit_flush TRUE It is desired that any output coming from print(), echo() and friends is immediately written to the output and not cached in any buffer. You still can use output buffering if you want to defer or manipulate standard output.
    max_execution_time 0 (unlimited) Due to endless possibilities of using PHP in shell environments, the maximum execution time has been set to unlimited. Whereas applications written for the web are often executed very quickly, shell application tend to have a much longer execution time.
    register_argc_argv TRUE

    Because this setting is TRUE you will always have access to argc (number of arguments passed to the application) and argv (array of the actual arguments) in the CLI SAPI.

    As of PHP 4.3.0, the PHP variables $argc and $argv are registered and filled in with the appropriate values when using the CLI SAPI. Prior to this version, the creation of these variables behaved as they do in CGI and MODULE versions which requires the PHP directive register_globals to be on. Regardless of version or register_globals setting, you can always go through either $_SERVER or $HTTP_SERVER_VARS. Example: $_SERVER['argv']

    Забележка: These directives cannot be initialized with another value from the configuration file php.ini or a custom one (if specified). This is a limitation because those default values are applied after all configuration files have been parsed. However, their value can be changed during runtime (which does not make sense for all of those directives, e.g. register_argc_argv).

  • To ease working in the shell environment, the following constants are defined:

    CLI specific Constants
    Constant Description
    STDIN

    An already opened stream to stdin. This saves opening it with

    <?php

    $stdin 
    fopen('php://stdin''r');

    ?>

    If you want to read single line from stdin, you can use

    <?php
    $line 
    trim(fgets(STDIN)); // reads one line from STDIN
    fscanf(STDIN"%d\n"$number); // reads number from STDIN
    ?>

    STDOUT

    An already opened stream to stdout. This saves opening it with

    <?php

    $stdout 
    fopen('php://stdout''w');

    ?>

    STDERR

    An already opened stream to stderr. This saves opening it with

    <?php

    $stderr 
    fopen('php://stderr''w');

    ?>

    Given the above, you don't need to open e.g. a stream for stderr yourself but simply use the constant instead of the stream resource:

    php -r 'fwrite(STDERR, "stderr\n");'

    You do not need to explicitly close these streams, as they are closed automatically by PHP when your script ends.

    Забележка: These constants are not available in case of reading PHP script from stdin.

  • The CLI SAPI does not change the current directory to the directory of the executed script!

    Example showing the difference to the CGI SAPI:

    <?php
    // Our simple test application named test.php
    echo getcwd(), "\n";
    ?>

    When using the CGI version, the output is:

    $ pwd
    /tmp
    
    $ php -q another_directory/test.php
    /tmp/another_directory
    

    This clearly shows that PHP changes its current directory to the one of the executed script.

    Using the CLI SAPI yields:

    $ pwd
    /tmp
    
    $ php -f another_directory/test.php
    /tmp
    

    This allows greater flexibility when writing shell tools in PHP.

    Забележка: The CGI SAPI supports this CLI SAPI behaviour by means of the -C switch when run from the command line.

The list of command line options provided by the PHP binary can be queried anytime by running PHP with the -h switch:

Usage: php [options] [-f] <file> [--] [args...]
       php [options] -r <code> [--] [args...]
       php [options] [-B <begin_code>] -R <code> [-E <end_code>] [--] [args...]
       php [options] [-B <begin_code>] -F <file> [-E <end_code>] [--] [args...]
       php [options] -- [args...]
       php [options] -a

  -a               Run interactively
  -c <path>|<file> Look for php.ini file in this directory
  -n               No php.ini file will be used
  -d foo[=bar]     Define INI entry foo with value 'bar'
  -e               Generate extended information for debugger/profiler
  -f <file>        Parse and execute <file>.
  -h               This help
  -i               PHP information
  -l               Syntax check only (lint)
  -m               Show compiled in modules
  -r <code>        Run PHP <code> without using script tags <?..?>
  -B <begin_code>  Run PHP <begin_code> before processing input lines
  -R <code>        Run PHP <code> for every input line
  -F <file>        Parse and execute <file> for every input line
  -E <end_code>    Run PHP <end_code> after processing all input lines
  -H               Hide any passed arguments from external tools.
  -s               Display colour syntax highlighted source.
  -v               Version number
  -w               Display source with stripped comments and whitespace.
  -z <file>        Load Zend extension <file>.

  args...          Arguments passed to script. Use -- args when first argument
                   starts with - or script is read from stdin

  --ini            Show configuration file names

  --rf <name>      Show information about function <name>.
  --rc <name>      Show information about class <name>.
  --re <name>      Show information about extension <name>.
  --ri <name>      Show configuration for extension <name>.

The CLI SAPI has three different ways of getting the PHP code you want to execute:

  1. Telling PHP to execute a certain file.

    php my_script.php
    
    php -f my_script.php
    

    Both ways (whether using the -f switch or not) execute the file my_script.php. You can choose any file to execute - your PHP scripts do not have to end with the .php extension but can have any name or extension you wish.

    Забележка: If you need to pass arguments to your scripts you need to pass -- as the first argument when using the -f switch.

  2. Pass the PHP code to execute directly on the command line.

    php -r 'print_r(get_defined_constants());'
    

    Special care has to be taken in regards of shell variable substitution and quoting usage.

    Забележка: Read the example carefully, there are no beginning or ending tags! The -r switch simply does not need them. Using them will lead to a parser error.

  3. Provide the PHP code to execute via standard input (stdin).

    This gives the powerful ability to dynamically create PHP code and feed it to the binary, as shown in this (fictional) example:

    $ some_application | some_filter | php | sort -u >final_output.txt
    

You cannot combine any of the three ways to execute code.

Like every shell application, the PHP binary accepts a number of arguments but your PHP script can also receive arguments. The number of arguments which can be passed to your script is not limited by PHP (the shell has a certain size limit in the number of characters which can be passed; usually you won't hit this limit). The arguments passed to your script are available in the global array $argv. The zero index always contains the script name (which is - in case the PHP code is coming from either standard input or from the command line switch -r). The second registered global variable is $argc which contains the number of elements in the $argv array (not the number of arguments passed to the script).

As long as the arguments you want to pass to your script do not start with the - character, there's nothing special to watch out for. Passing an argument to your script which starts with a - will cause trouble because PHP itself thinks it has to handle it. To prevent this, use the argument list separator --. After this separator has been parsed by PHP, every argument following it is passed untouched to your script.

# This will not execute the given code but will show the PHP usage
$ php -r 'var_dump($argv);' -h
Usage: php [options] [-f] <file> [args...]
[...]

# This will pass the '-h' argument to your script and prevent PHP from showing it's usage
$ php -r 'var_dump($argv);' -- -h
array(2) {
  [0]=>
  string(1) "-"
  [1]=>
  string(2) "-h"
}

However, there's another way of using PHP for shell scripting. You can write a script where the first line starts with #!/usr/bin/php. Following this you can place normal PHP code included within the PHP starting and end tags. Once you have set the execution attributes of the file appropriately (e.g. chmod +x test) your script can be executed like a normal shell or perl script:

Example #1 Execute PHP script as shell script

#!/usr/bin/php
<?php
var_dump
($argv);
?>

Assuming this file is named test in the current directory, we can now do the following:

$ chmod +x test
$ ./test -h -- foo
array(4) {
  [0]=>
  string(6) "./test"
  [1]=>
  string(2) "-h"
  [2]=>
  string(2) "--"
  [3]=>
  string(3) "foo"
}

As you see, in this case no care needs to be taken when passing parameters which start with - to your script.

Long options are available since PHP 4.3.3.

Command line options
Option Long Option Description
-a --interactive

Runs PHP interactively. If you compile PHP with the Readline extension (which is not available on Windows), you'll have a nice shell, including a completion feature (e.g. you can start typing a variable name, hit the TAB key and PHP completes its name) and a typing history that can be accessed using the arrow keys. The history is saved in the ~/.php_history file.

Забележка: Files included through auto_prepend_file and auto_append_file are parsed in this mode but with some restrictions - e.g. functions have to be defined before called.

Забележка: Autoloading is not available if using PHP in CLI interactive mode.

-c --php-ini

This option can either specify a directory where to look for php.ini or specify a custom INI file (which does not need to be named php.ini), e.g.:

$ php -c /custom/directory/ my_script.php

$ php -c /custom/directory/custom-file.ini my_script.php

If you don't specify this option, file is searched in default locations.

-n --no-php-ini

Ignore php.ini at all. This switch is available since PHP 4.3.0.

-d --define

This option allows you to set a custom value for any of the configuration directives allowed in php.ini. The syntax is:

-d configuration_directive[=value]

Examples (lines are wrapped for layout reasons):

# Omitting the value part will set the given configuration directive to "1"
$ php -d max_execution_time
        -r '$foo = ini_get("max_execution_time"); var_dump($foo);'
string(1) "1"

# Passing an empty value part will set the configuration directive to ""
php -d max_execution_time=
        -r '$foo = ini_get("max_execution_time"); var_dump($foo);'
string(0) ""

# The configuration directive will be set to anything passed after the '=' character
$  php -d max_execution_time=20
        -r '$foo = ini_get("max_execution_time"); var_dump($foo);'
string(2) "20"
$  php
        -d max_execution_time=doesntmakesense
        -r '$foo = ini_get("max_execution_time"); var_dump($foo);'
string(15) "doesntmakesense"

-e --profile-info

Activate the extended information mode, to be used by a debugger/profiler.

-f --file

Parses and executes the given filename to the -f option. This switch is optional and can be left out. Only providing the filename to execute is sufficient.

Забележка: To pass arguments to scripts the first argument needs to be --, otherwise PHP will interperate them as PHP options.

-h and -? --help and --usage With this option, you can get information about the actual list of command line options and some one line descriptions about what they do.
-i --info This command line option calls phpinfo(), and prints out the results. If PHP is not working correctly, it is advisable to use php -i and see whether any error messages are printed out before or in place of the information tables. Beware that when using the CGI mode the output is in HTML and therefore quite huge.
-l --syntax-check

This option provides a convenient way to only perform a syntax check on the given PHP code. On success, the text No syntax errors detected in <filename> is written to standard output and the shell return code is 0. On failure, the text Errors parsing <filename> in addition to the internal parser error message is written to standard output and the shell return code is set to -1.

This option won't find fatal errors (like undefined functions). Use -f if you would like to test for fatal errors too.

Забележка: This option does not work together with the -r option.

-m --modules

Using this option, PHP prints out the built in (and loaded) PHP and Zend modules:

$ php -m
[PHP Modules]
xml
tokenizer
standard
session
posix
pcre
overload
mysql
mbstring
ctype

[Zend Modules]

-r --run

This option allows execution of PHP right from within the command line. The PHP start and end tags (<?php and ?>) are not needed and will cause a parser error if present.

Забележка: Care has to be taken when using this form of PHP to not collide with command line variable substitution done by the shell.

Example showing a parser error

$ php -r "$foo = get_defined_constants();"
Command line code(1) : Parse error - parse error, unexpected '='

The problem here is that the sh/bash performs variable substitution even when using double quotes ". Since the variable $foo is unlikely to be defined, it expands to nothing which results in the code passed to PHP for execution actually reading:

$ php -r " = get_defined_constants();"

The correct way would be to use single quotes '. Variables in single-quoted strings are not expanded by sh/bash.

$ php -r '$foo = get_defined_constants(); var_dump($foo);'
array(370) {
  ["E_ERROR"]=>
  int(1)
  ["E_WARNING"]=>
  int(2)
  ["E_PARSE"]=>
  int(4)
  ["E_NOTICE"]=>
  int(8)
  ["E_CORE_ERROR"]=>
  [...]

If you are using a shell different from sh/bash, you might experience further issues. Feel free to open a bug report at » http://bugs.php.net/. One can still easily run into troubles when trying to get shell variables into the code or using backslashes for escaping. You've been warned.

Забележка: -r is available in the CLI SAPI and not in the CGI SAPI.

Забележка: This option is meant for a very basic stuff. Thus some configuration directives (e.g. auto_prepend_file and auto_append_file) are ignored in this mode.

-B --process-begin

PHP code to execute before processing stdin. Added in PHP 5.

-R --process-code

PHP code to execute for every input line. Added in PHP 5.

There are two special variables available in this mode: $argn and $argi. $argn will contain the line PHP is processing at that moment, while $argi will contain the line number.

-F --process-file

PHP file to execute for every input line. Added in PHP 5.

-E --process-end

PHP code to execute after processing the input. Added in PHP 5.

Example #2 Using the -B, -R and -E options to count the number of lines of a project.

$ find my_proj | php -B '$l=0;' -R '$l += count(@file($argn));' -E 'echo "Total Lines: $l\n";'
Total Lines: 37328

-s --syntax-highlight and --syntax-highlighting

Display colour syntax highlighted source.

This option uses the internal mechanism to parse the file and produces a HTML highlighted version of it and writes it to standard output. Note that all it does it to generate a block of <code> [...] </code> HTML tags, no HTML headers.

Забележка: This option does not work together with the -r option.

-v --version

Writes the PHP, PHP SAPI, and Zend version to standard output, e.g.

$ php -v
PHP 4.3.0 (cli), Copyright (c) 1997-2002 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v1.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2002 Zend Technologies

-w --strip

Display source with stripped comments and whitespace.

Забележка: This option does not work together with the -r option.

-z --zend-extension

Load Zend extension. If only a filename is given, PHP tries to load this extension from the current default library path on your system (usually specified /etc/ld.so.conf on Linux systems). Passing a filename with an absolute path information will not use the systems library search path. A relative filename with a directory information will tell PHP only to try to load the extension relative to the current directory.

  --ini

Shows configuration file names and scanned directories. Available as of PHP 5.2.3.

Example #3 --ini example

$ php --ini
Configuration File (php.ini) Path: /usr/dev/php/5.2/lib
Loaded Configuration File:         /usr/dev/php/5.2/lib/php.ini
Scan for additional .ini files in: (none)
Additional .ini files parsed:      (none)

--rf --rfunction

Shows information about the given function or class method (e.g. number and name of the parameters). Available as of PHP 5.1.2.

This option is only available if PHP was compiled with Reflection support.

Example #4 basic --rf usage

$ php --rf var_dump
Function [ <internal> public function var_dump ] {

  - Parameters [2] {
    Parameter #0 [ <required> $var ]
    Parameter #1 [ <optional> $... ]
  }
}

--rc --rclass

Show information about the given class (list of constants, properties and methods). Available as of PHP 5.1.2.

This option is only available if PHP was compiled with Reflection support.

Example #5 --rc example

$ php --rc Directory
Class [ <internal:standard> class Directory ] {

  - Constants [0] {
  }

  - Static properties [0] {
  }

  - Static methods [0] {
  }

  - Properties [0] {
  }

  - Methods [3] {
    Method [ <internal> public method close ] {
    }

    Method [ <internal> public method rewind ] {
    }

    Method [ <internal> public method read ] {
    }
  }
}

--re --rextension

Show information about the given extension (list of php.ini options, defined functions, constants and classes). Available as of PHP 5.1.2.

This option is only available if PHP was compiled with Reflection support.

Example #6 --re example

$ php --re json
Extension [ <persistent> extension #19 json version 1.2.1 ] {

  - Functions {
    Function [ <internal> function json_encode ] {
    }
    Function [ <internal> function json_decode ] {
    }
  }
}

--ri --rextinfo

Shows the configuration information for the given extension (the same information that is returned by phpinfo()). Available as of PHP 5.2.2. The core configuration information are available using "main" as extension name.

Example #7 --ri example

$ php --ri date

date

date/time support => enabled
"Olson" Timezone Database Version => 2007.5
Timezone Database => internal
Default timezone => Europe/Oslo

Directive => Local Value => Master Value
date.timezone => Europe/Oslo => Europe/Oslo
date.default_latitude => 59.22482 => 59.22482
date.default_longitude => 11.018084 => 11.018084
date.sunset_zenith => 90.583333 => 90.583333
date.sunrise_zenith => 90.583333 => 90.583333

The PHP executable can be used to run PHP scripts absolutely independent from the web server. If you are on a Unix system, you should add a special first line to your PHP script, and make it executable, so the system will know, what program should run the script. On a Windows platform you can associate php.exe with the double click option of the .php files, or you can make a batch file to run the script through PHP. The first line added to the script to work on Unix won't hurt on Windows, so you can write cross platform programs this way. A simple example of writing a command line PHP program can be found below.

Example #8 Script intended to be run from command line (script.php)

#!/usr/bin/php
<?php

if ($argc != || in_array($argv[1], array('--help''-help''-h''-?'))) {
?>

This is a command line PHP script with one option.

  Usage:
  <?php echo $argv[0]; ?> <option>

  <option> can be some word you would like
  to print out. With the --help, -help, -h,
  or -? options, you can get this help.

<?php
} else {
    echo 
$argv[1];
}
?>

In the script above, we used the special first line to indicate that this file should be run by PHP. We work with a CLI version here, so there will be no HTTP header printouts. There are two variables you can use while writing command line applications with PHP: $argc and $argv. The first is the number of arguments plus one (the name of the script running). The second is an array containing the arguments, starting with the script name as number zero ($argv[0]).

In the program above we checked if there are less or more than one arguments. Also if the argument was --help, -help, -h or -?, we printed out the help message, printing the script name dynamically. If we received some other argument we echoed that out.

If you would like to run the above script on Unix, you need to make it executable, and simply call it as script.php echothis or script.php -h. On Windows, you can make a batch file for this task:

Example #9 Batch file to run a command line PHP script (script.bat)

@echo OFF
"C:\php\php.exe" script.php %*

Assuming you named the above program script.php, and you have your CLI php.exe in C:\php\php.exe this batch file will run it for you with your added options: script.bat echothis or script.bat -h.

See also the Readline extension documentation for more functions you can use to enhance your command line applications in PHP.

If you are on Windows, PHP can be configured to run without the need to supply the C:\php\php.exe or the .php extension, as descibed in Command Line PHP on Microsoft Windows.

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 68 notes

up
27
sep16 at psu dot edu
2 years ago
You can easily parse command line arguments into the $_GET variable by using the parse_str() function.

<?php

parse_str
(implode('&', array_slice($argv, 1)), $_GET);

?>

It behaves exactly like you'd expect with cgi-php.

$ php -f somefile.php a=1 b[]=2 b[]=3

This will set $_GET['a'] to '1' and $_GET['b'] to array('2', '3').

Even better, instead of putting that line in every file, take advantage of PHP's auto_prepend_file directive.  Put that line in its own file and set the auto_prepend_file directive in your cli-specific php.ini like so:

auto_prepend_file = "/etc/php/cli-php5.3/local.prepend.php"

It will be automatically prepended to any PHP file run from the command line.
up
7
php at schabdach dot de
8 years ago
To pass more than 9 arguments to your php-script on Windows, you can use the 'shift'-command in a batch file. After using 'shift', %1 becomes %0, %2 becomes %1 and so on - so you can fetch argument 10 etc.

Here's an example - hopefully ready-to-use - batch file:

foo.bat:
---------
@echo off

:init_arg
set args=

:get_arg
shift
if "%0"=="" goto :finish_arg
set args=%args% %0
goto :get_arg
:finish_arg

set php=C:\path\to\php.exe
set ini=C:\path\to\php.ini
%php% -c %ini% foo.php %args%
---------

Usage on commandline:
foo -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -foo -bar

A print_r($argv) will give you all of the passed arguments.
up
4
rh@hdesigndotdemondotcodotuk
9 years ago
In a bid to save time out of lives when calling up php from the Command Line on Mac OS X.

I just wasted hours on this. Having written a routine which used the MCRYPT library, and tested it via a browser, I then set up a crontab to run the script from the command line every hour (to do automated backups from mysql using mysqldump, encrypt them using mcrypt, then email them and ftp them off to remote locations).

Everything worked fine from the browser, but failed every time from the cron task with "Call to undefined function: mcrypt [whatever]".

Only after much searching do I realise that the CGI and CLI versions are differently compiled, and have different modules attached (I'm using the entropy.ch install for Mac OS-X, php v4.3.2 and mysql v4.0.18).

I still can not find a way to resolve the problem, so I have decided instead to remove the script from the SSL side of the server, and run it using a crontab with CURL to localhost or 127.0.0.1 in order that it will run through Apache's php module.

Just thought this might help some other people tearing their hair out. If anyone knows a quick fix to add the mcrypt module onto the CLI php without any tricky re-installing, it'd be really helpful.

Meantime the workaround does the job, not as neatly though.
up
3
mortals at seznam dot cz
6 years ago
If a module SAPI is chosen during configure, such as apxs, or the --disable-cgi option is used, the CLI is copied to {PREFIX}/bin/php during make install  otherwise the CGI is placed there.

versus

Changed CGI install target to php-cgi and 'make install' to install CLI when CGI is selected. (changelog for 5.2.3)
http://www.php.net/ChangeLog-5.php#5.2.3
up
1
goalain eat gmail dont com
7 years ago
An addition to my previous post (you can replace it)

If your php script doesn't run with shebang (#!/usr/bin/php),
and it issues the beautifull and informative error message:
"Command not found."  just dos2unix yourscript.php
et voila.

If you still get the "Command not found."
Just try to run it as ./myscript.php , with the "./"
if it works - it means your current directory is not in the executable search path.

If your php script doesn't run with shebang (#/usr/bin/php),
and it issues the beautifull and informative message:
"Invalid null command." it's probably because the "!" is missing in the the shebang line (like what's above) or something else in that area.

\Alon
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1
coffear at gmail dot com
5 years ago
In the notes it there is an example of running 1 line of PHP using:

php -r 'print_r(get_defined_constants());'

This might work on a UNIX machine but unfortunately on windows it produces the following error message:

Parse error: parse error in Command line code on line 1

Instead of using ' (single quotes) to encompass the PHP code use " (double quotes) instead. You can safely use ' within the code itself however such as:

php -r "echo 'hello';"
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1
ross at golder dot org
4 years ago
Note that parsing of the shebang line may not always work as expected...

#!/usr/bin/php -dmemory_limit=512M -dsafe_mode=Off
<?php

print "memory_limit=".ini_get("memory_limit")."\n";
print
"safe_mode=".ini_get("safe_mode")."\n";

?>

gives...

$ ./test.php
PHP:  Invalid configuration directive
memory_limit=512M -dsafe_mode
safe_mode=
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1
Kodeart
2 years ago
Check directly without calling functions:
<?php
if (PHP_SAPI === 'cli')
{
  
// ...
}
?>

You can define a constant to use it elsewhere
<?php
define
('ISCLI', PHP_SAPI === 'cli');
?>
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1
thomas dot harding at laposte dot net
6 years ago
Parsing command line: optimization is evil!

One thing all contributors on this page forgotten is that you can suround an argv with single or double quotes. So the join coupled together with the preg_match_all will always break that :)

Here is a proposal:

#!/usr/bin/php
<?php
print_r
(arguments($argv));

function
arguments ( $args )
{
 
array_shift( $args );
 
$endofoptions = false;

 
$ret = array
    (
   
'commands' => array(),
   
'options' => array(),
   
'flags'    => array(),
   
'arguments' => array(),
    );

  while (
$arg = array_shift($args) )
  {

   
// if we have reached end of options,
    //we cast all remaining argvs as arguments
   
if ($endofoptions)
    {
     
$ret['arguments'][] = $arg;
      continue;
    }

   
// Is it a command? (prefixed with --)
   
if ( substr( $arg, 0, 2 ) === '--' )
    {

     
// is it the end of options flag?
     
if (!isset ($arg[3]))
      {
       
$endofoptions = true;; // end of options;
       
continue;
      }

     
$value = "";
     
$com   = substr( $arg, 2 );

     
// is it the syntax '--option=argument'?
     
if (strpos($com,'='))
        list(
$com,$value) = split("=",$com,2);

     
// is the option not followed by another option but by arguments
     
elseif (strpos($args[0],'-') !== 0)
      {
        while (
strpos($args[0],'-') !== 0)
         
$value .= array_shift($args).' ';
       
$value = rtrim($value,' ');
      }

     
$ret['options'][$com] = !empty($value) ? $value : true;
      continue;

    }

   
// Is it a flag or a serial of flags? (prefixed with -)
   
if ( substr( $arg, 0, 1 ) === '-' )
    {
      for (
$i = 1; isset($arg[$i]) ; $i++)
       
$ret['flags'][] = $arg[$i];
      continue;
    }

   
// finally, it is not option, nor flag, nor argument
   
$ret['commands'][] = $arg;
    continue;
  }

  if (!
count($ret['options']) && !count($ret['flags']))
  {
   
$ret['arguments'] = array_merge($ret['commands'], $ret['arguments']);
   
$ret['commands'] = array();
  }
return
$ret;
}

exit (
0)

/* vim: set expandtab tabstop=2 shiftwidth=2: */
?>
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2
phpNOSPAM at dogpoop dot cjb dot net
11 years ago
Here are some instructions on how to make PHP files executable from the command prompt in Win2k.  I have not tested this in any other version of Windows, but I'm assuming it will work in XP, but not 9x/Me.

There is an environment variable (control panel->system->advanced->environment variables) named PATHEXT.  This is a list of file extensions Windows will recognize as executable at the command prompt.  Add .PHP (or .PL, or .CLASS, or whatever) to this list.  Windows will use the default action associated with that file type when you execute it from the command prompt.

To set up the default action:
Open Explorer.
Go to Tools->folder options->file types
Find the extension you're looking for.  If it's not there, click New to add it.
Click on the file type, then on Advanced, then New.
For the action, type "Run" or "Execute" or whatever makes sense.
For the application, type
  {path to application} "%1" %*
The %* will send any command line options that you type to the program.
The application field for PHP might look like
  c:\php\php.exe -f "%1" -- %*
(Note, you'll probably want to use the command line interface version php-cli.exe)
or for Java
  c:\java\java.exe "%1" %*
Click OK.
Click on the action that was just added, then click Set default.

If this helps you or if you have any changes/more information I would appreciate a note.  Just remove NOSPAM from the email address.
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jgraef at users dot sf dot net
7 years ago
Hi,
This function clears the screen, like "clear screen"

<?php
 
function clearscreen($out = TRUE) {
   
$clearscreen = chr(27)."[H".chr(27)."[2J";
    if (
$out) print $clearscreen;
    else return
$clearscreen;
  }
?>
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notreallyanaddress at somerandomaddr dot com
4 years ago
If you want to be interactive with the user and accept user input, all you need to do is read from stdin. 

<?php
echo "Are you sure you want to do this?  Type 'yes' to continue: ";
$handle = fopen ("php://stdin","r");
$line = fgets($handle);
if(
trim($line) != 'yes'){
    echo
"ABORTING!\n";
    exit;
}
echo
"\n";
echo
"Thank you, continuing...\n";
?>
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Anonymous
6 years ago
I find regex and manually breaking up the arguments instead of havingon $_SERVER['argv'] to do it more flexiable this way.

cli_test.php asdf asdf --help --dest=/var/ -asd -h --option mew arf moo -z

    Array
    (
        [input] => Array
            (
                [0] => asdf
                [1] => asdf
            )

        [commands] => Array
            (
                [help] => 1
                [dest] => /var/
                [option] => mew arf moo
            )

        [flags] => Array
            (
                [0] => asd
                [1] => h
                [2] => z
            )

    )

<?php

function arguments ( $args )
{
   
array_shift( $args );
   
$args = join( $args, ' ' );

   
preg_match_all('/ (--\w+ (?:[= ] [^-]+ [^\s-] )? ) | (-\w+) | (\w+) /x', $args, $match );
   
$args = array_shift( $match );

   
/*
        Array
        (
            [0] => asdf
            [1] => asdf
            [2] => --help
            [3] => --dest=/var/
            [4] => -asd
            [5] => -h
            [6] => --option mew arf moo
            [7] => -z
        )
    */

   
$ret = array(
       
'input'    => array(),
       
'commands' => array(),
       
'flags'    => array()
    );

    foreach (
$args as $arg ) {

       
// Is it a command? (prefixed with --)
       
if ( substr( $arg, 0, 2 ) === '--' ) {

           
$value = preg_split( '/[= ]/', $arg, 2 );
           
$com   = substr( array_shift($value), 2 );
           
$value = join($value);

           
$ret['commands'][$com] = !empty($value) ? $value : true;
            continue;

        }

       
// Is it a flag? (prefixed with -)
       
if ( substr( $arg, 0, 1 ) === '-' ) {
           
$ret['flags'][] = substr( $arg, 1 );
            continue;
        }

       
$ret['input'][] = $arg;
        continue;

    }

    return
$ret;
}

print_r( arguments( $argv ) );

?>
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justin at visunet dot ie
11 years ago
If you are trying to set up an interactive command line script and you want to get started straight away (works on 4+ I hope). Here is some code to start you off:

<?php

   
// Stop the script giving time out errors..
   
set_time_limit(0);

   
// This opens standard in ready for interactive input..
   
define('STDIN',fopen("php://stdin","r"));

   
// Main event loop to capture top level command..
   
while(!0)
    {
       
       
// Print out main menu..
       
echo "Select an option..\n\n";
        echo
"    1) Do this\n";
        echo
"    2) Do this\n";
        echo
"    3) Do this\n";
        echo
"    x) Exit\n";

       
// Decide what menu option to select based on input..
       
switch(trim(fgets(STDIN,256)))
        {
            case
1:
                break;
               
            case
2:
                break;

            case
3:
                break;

            case
"x":
                exit();
               
            default:
                break;
        }

    }

   
// Close standard in..
   
fclose(STDIN);

?>
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dino (at) asttra (dot) com (dot) br
6 years ago
For those who was unable to clear the windows screen trying to run CLS command:

CLS is not an windows executable file! It is an option from command.com!

So, the rigth command is

   system("command /C cls");
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lucas dot vasconcelos at gmail dot com
7 years ago
Just another variant of previous script that group arguments doesn't starts with '-' or '--'

<?php
function arguments($argv) {
   
$_ARG = array();
    foreach (
$argv as $arg) {
      if (
ereg('--([^=]+)=(.*)',$arg,$reg)) {
       
$_ARG[$reg[1]] = $reg[2];
      } elseif(
ereg('^-([a-zA-Z0-9])',$arg,$reg)) {
           
$_ARG[$reg[1]] = 'true';
      } else {
           
$_ARG['input'][]=$arg;
      }
    }
  return
$_ARG;
}

print_r(arguments($argv));
?>

$ php myscript.php --user=nobody /etc/apache2/*
Array
(
    [input] => Array
        (
            [0] => myscript.php
            [1] => /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
            [2] => /etc/apache2/conf.d
            [3] => /etc/apache2/envvars
            [4] => /etc/apache2/httpd.conf
            [5] => /etc/apache2/mods-available
            [6] => /etc/apache2/mods-enabled
            [7] => /etc/apache2/ports.conf
            [8] => /etc/apache2/sites-available
            [9] => /etc/apache2/sites-enabled
        )

    [user] => nobody
)
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bluej100@gmail
7 years ago
In 5.1.2 (and others, I assume), the -f form silently drops the first argument after the script name from $_SERVER['argv']. I'd suggest avoiding it unless you need it for a special case.
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eric dot brison at anakeen dot com
7 years ago
Just a variant of previous script to accept arguments with '=' also
<?php
function arguments($argv) {
   
$_ARG = array();
    foreach (
$argv as $arg) {
      if (
ereg('--([^=]+)=(.*)',$arg,$reg)) {
       
$_ARG[$reg[1]] = $reg[2];
      } elseif(
ereg('-([a-zA-Z0-9])',$arg,$reg)) {
           
$_ARG[$reg[1]] = 'true';
        }
  
    }
  return
$_ARG;
}
?>
$ php myscript.php --user=nobody --password=secret -p --access="host=127.0.0.1 port=456"
Array
(
    [user] => nobody
    [password] => secret
    [p] => true
    [access] => host=127.0.0.1 port=456
)
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Jouni
7 years ago
I had a problem with PHP 5.2.0 (cli) (winXP) that no output was printed when I tried to run any file. Using the -n switch solved the problem.

Apparently the interpreter can't always find php.ini, even though both exist in the same folder and the PATH variable is set correctly. No error messages were printed either.
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djcassis at gmail
7 years ago
To display colored text when it is actually supported :
<?php
echo "\033[31m".$myvar; // red foreground
echo "\033[41m".$myvar; // red background
?>

To reset these settings :
<?php
echo "\033[0m";
?>

More fun :
<?php
echo "\033[5;30m;\033[48mWARNING !"; // black blinking text over red background
?>

More info here : http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bash-Prompt-HOWTO/x329.html
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Anonymous
7 years ago
It seems like 'max_execution_time' doesn't work on CLI.

<?php
php
-d max_execution_time=20
       
-r '$foo = ini_get("max_execution_time"); var_dump($foo);'
?>
will print string(2) "20", but if you'l run infinity while: while(true) for example, it wouldn't stop after 20 seconds.
Testes on Linux Gentoo, PHP 5.1.6.
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hobby6_at_hotmail.com
7 years ago
On windows, you can simulate a cls by echoing out just \r.  This will keep the cursor on the same line and overwrite what was on the line.

for example:

<?php
   
echo "Starting Iteration" . "\n\r";
    for (
$i=0;$i<10000;$i++) {
        echo
"\r" . $i;
    }
    echo
"Ending Iteration" . "\n\r";
?>
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stromdotcom at hotmail dot com
8 years ago
Spawning php-win.exe as a child process to handle scripting in Windows applications has a few quirks (all having to do with pipes between Windows apps and console apps).

To do this in C++:

// We will run php.exe as a child process after creating
// two pipes and attaching them to stdin and stdout
// of the child process
// Define sa struct such that child inherits our handles

SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES sa = { sizeof(SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES) };
sa.bInheritHandle = TRUE;
sa.lpSecurityDescriptor = NULL;

// Create the handles for our two pipes (two handles per pipe, one for each end)
// We will have one pipe for stdin, and one for stdout, each with a READ and WRITE end
HANDLE hStdoutRd, hStdoutWr, hStdinRd, hStdinWr;

// Now create the pipes, and make them inheritable
CreatePipe (&hStdoutRd, &hStdoutWr, &sa, 0))
SetHandleInformation(hStdoutRd, HANDLE_FLAG_INHERIT, 0);
CreatePipe (&hStdinRd, &hStdinWr, &sa, 0)
SetHandleInformation(hStdinWr, HANDLE_FLAG_INHERIT, 0);

// Now we have two pipes, we can create the process
// First, fill out the usage structs
STARTUPINFO si = { sizeof(STARTUPINFO) };
PROCESS_INFORMATION pi;
si.dwFlags = STARTF_USESTDHANDLES;
si.hStdOutput = hStdoutWr;
si.hStdInput  = hStdinRd;

// And finally, create the process
CreateProcess (NULL, "c:\\php\\php-win.exe", NULL, NULL, TRUE, NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS, NULL, NULL, &si, &pi);

// Close the handles we aren't using
CloseHandle(hStdoutWr);
CloseHandle(hStdinRd);

// Now that we have the process running, we can start pushing PHP at it
WriteFile(hStdinWr, "<?php echo 'test'; ?>", 9, &dwWritten, NULL);

// When we're done writing to stdin, we close that pipe
CloseHandle(hStdinWr);

// Reading from stdout is only slightly more complicated
int i;

std::string processed("");
char buf[128];

while ( (ReadFile(hStdoutRd, buf, 128, &dwRead, NULL) && (dwRead != 0)) ) {
    for (i = 0; i < dwRead; i++)
        processed += buf[i];
}   

// Done reading, so close this handle too
CloseHandle(hStdoutRd);

A full implementation (implemented as a C++ class) is available at http://www.stromcode.com
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OverFlow636 at gmail dot com
8 years ago
I needed this, you proly wont tho.
puts the exicution args into $_GET
<?php
if ($argv) {
    foreach (
$argv as $k=>$v)
    {
        if (
$k==0) continue;
       
$it = explode("=",$argv[$i]);
        if (isset(
$it[1])) $_GET[$it[0]] = $it[1];
    }
}
?>
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docey
9 years ago
dunno if this is on linux the same but on windows evertime
you send somthing to the console screen php is waiting for
the console to return. therefor if you send a lot of small
short amounts of text, the console is starting to be using
more cpu-cycles then php and thus slowing the script.

take a look at this sheme:
cpu-cycle:1 ->php: print("a");
cpu-cycle:2 ->cmd: output("a");
cpu-cycle:3 ->php: print("b");
cpu-cycle:4 ->cmd: output("b");
cpu-cycle:5 ->php: print("c");
cpu-cycle:6 ->cmd: output("c");
cpu-cylce:7 ->php: print("d");
cpu-cycle:8 ->cmd: output("d");
cpu-cylce:9 ->php: print("e");
cpu-cycle:0 ->cmd: output("e");

on the screen just appears "abcde". but if you write
your script this way it will be far more faster:
cpu-cycle:1 ->php: ob_start();
cpu-cycle:2 ->php: print("abc");
cpu-cycle:3 ->php: print("de");
cpu-cycle:4 ->php: $data = ob_get_contents();
cpu-cycle:5 ->php: ob_end_clean();
cpu-cycle:6 ->php: print($data);
cpu-cycle:7 ->cmd: output("abcde");

now this is just a small example but if you are writing an
app that is outputting a lot to the console, i.e. a text
based screen with frequent updates, then its much better
to first cach all output, and output is as one big chunk of
text instead of one char a the time.

ouput buffering is ideal for this. in my script i outputted
almost 4000chars of info and just by caching it first, it
speeded up by almost 400% and dropped cpu-usage.

because what is being displayed doesn't matter, be it 2
chars or 40.0000 chars, just the call to output takes a
great deal of time. remeber that.

maybe someone can test if this is the same on unix-based
systems. it seems that the STDOUT stream just waits for
the console to report ready, before continueing execution.
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linus at flowingcreativity dot net
9 years ago
If you are using Windows XP (I think this works on 2000, too) and you want to be able to right-click a .php file and run it from the command line, follow these steps:

1. Run regedit.exe and *back up the registry.*
2. Open HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT and find the ".php" key.

IF IT EXISTS:
------------------
3. Look at the "(Default)" value inside it and find the key in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT with that name.
4. Open the "shell" key inside that key. Skip to 8.

IF IT DOESN'T:
------------------
5. Add a ".php" key and set the "(Default)" value inside it to something like "phpscriptfile".
6. Create another key in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT called "phpscriptfile" or whatever you chose.
7. Create a key inside that one called "shell".

8. Create a key inside that one called "run".
9. Set the "(Default)" value inside "run" to whatever you want the menu option to be (e.g. "Run").
10. Create a key inside "run" called "command".
11. Set the "(Default)" value inside "command" to:

cmd.exe /k C:\php\php.exe "%1"

Make sure the path to PHP is appropriate for your installation. Why not just run it with php.exe directly? Because you (presumably) want the console window to remain open after the script ends.

You don't need to set up a webserver for this to work. I downloaded PHP just so I could run scripts on my computer. Hope this is useful!
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roberto dot dimas at gmail dot com
9 years ago
One of the things I like about perl and vbscripts, is the fact that I can name a file e.g. 'test.pl' and just have to type 'test, without the .pl extension' on the windows command line and the command processor knows that it is a perl file and executes it using the perl command interpreter.

I did the same with the file extension .php3 (I will use php3 exclusivelly for command line php scripts, I'm doing this because my text editor VIM 6.3 already has the correct syntax highlighting for .php3 files ).

I modified the PATHEXT environment variable in Windows XP, from the " 'system' control panel applet->'Advanced' tab->'Environment Variables' button-> 'System variables' text area".

Then from control panel "Folder Options" applet-> 'File Types' tab, I added a new file extention (php3), using the button 'New'  and typing php3 in the window that pops up.

Then in the 'Details for php3 extention' area I used the 'Change' button to look for the Php.exe executable so that the php3 file extentions are associated with the php executable.

You have to modify also the 'PATH' environment variable, pointing to the folder where the php executable is installed

Hope this is useful to somebody
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merrittd at dhcmc dot com
9 years ago
Example 43-2 shows how to create a DOS batch file to run a PHP script form the command line using:

@c:\php\cli\php.exe script.php %1 %2 %3 %4

Here is an updated version of the DOS batch file:

@c:\php\cli\php.exe %~n0.php %*

This will run a PHP file (i.e. script.php) with the same base file name (i.e. script) as the DOS batch file (i.e. script.bat) and pass all parameters (not just the first four as in example 43-2) from the DOS batch file to the PHP file. 

This way all you have to do is copy/rename the DOS batch file to match the name of your PHP script file without ever having to actually modify the contents of the DOS batch file to match the file name of the PHP script.
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-1
Anonymous
4 years ago
Using CLI (on WIN at least), some INI paths are relative to the current working directory.  For example, if your error_log = "php_errors.log", then php_errors.log will be created (or appended to if already exists) in whatever directory you happen to be in at the moment if you have write access there.  Instead of having random error logs all over the place because of this behavior, you may want to set error_log to a full path, perhaps to the php.exe directory.
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obfuscated at emailaddress dot com
9 years ago
This posting is not a php-only problem, but hopefully will save someone a few hours of headaches.  Running on MacOS (although this could happen on any *nix I suppose), I was unable to get the script to execute without specifically envoking php from the command line:

[macg4:valencia/jobs] tim% test.php
./test.php: Command not found.

However, it worked just fine when php was envoked on the command line:

[macg4:valencia/jobs] tim% php test.php
Well, here we are...  Now what?

Was file access mode set for executable?  Yup.

[macg4:valencia/jobs] tim% ls -l
total 16
-rwxr-xr-x  1 tim  staff   242 Feb 24 17:23 test.php

And you did, of course, remember to add the php command as the first line of your script, yeah?  Of course.

#!/usr/bin/php
<?php print "Well, here we are...  Now what?\n"; ?>

So why dudn't it work?  Well, like I said... on a Mac.... but I also occasionally edit the files on my Windows portable (i.e. when I'm travelling and don't have my trusty Mac available)...  Using, say, WordPad on Windows... and BBEdit on the Mac...

Aaahhh... in BBEdit check how the file is being saved!  Mac?  Unix?  or Dos?  Bingo.  It had been saved as Dos format.  Change it to Unix:

[macg4:valencia/jobs] tim% ./test.php
Well, here we are...  Now what?
[macg4:valencia/jobs] tim%

NB: If you're editing your php files on multiple platforms (i.e. Windows and Linux), make sure you double check the files are saved in a Unix format...  those \r's and \n's 'll bite cha!
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db at digitalmediacreation dot ch
9 years ago
A very important point missing here (I lost hours on it and hope to avoid this to you) :

* When using PHP as CGI
* When you just become crazy because of "No input file specified" appearing on the web page, while it never appears directly in the shell

Then I have a solution for you :

1. Create a script for example called cgiwrapper.cgi
2. Put inside :
#!/bin/sh -
export SCRIPT_FILENAME=/var/www/realpage.php
/usr/bin/php -f $SCRIPT_FILENAME
3. Name your page realpage.php

For example with thttpd the problem is that SCRIPT_FILENAME is not defined, while PHP absolutely requires it.
My solution corrects that problem !
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0
ken.gregg at rwre dot com
9 years ago
If you want to use named command line parameters in your script,
the following code will parse command line parameters in the form
of name=value and place them in the $_REQUEST super global array.

cli_test.php
<?php

echo "argv[] = ";
print_r($argv);  // just to see what was passed in

if ($argc > 0)
{
  for (
$i=1;$i < $argc;$i++)
  {
   
parse_str($argv[$i],$tmp);
   
$_REQUEST = array_merge($_REQUEST, $tmp);
  }
}

echo
"\$_REQUEST = ";
print_r($_REQUEST);

?>

rwre:~/tmp$ /usr/local/bin/php cli_test.php foo=1 bar=2 third=a+value

argv[] = Array
(
    [0] => t.php
    [1] => foo=1
    [2] => bar=2
    [3] => third=a+value
)
$_REQUEST = Array
(
    [foo] => 1
    [bar] => 2
    [third] => a value
)
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0
Ben Jenkins
9 years ago
This took me all day to figure out, so I hope posting it here saves someone some time:
Your PHP-CLI may have a different php.ini than your apache-php.  For example: On my Debian-based system, I discovered I have /etc/php4/apache/php.ini and /etc/php4/cli/php.ini
If you want MySQL support in the CLI, make sure the line
extension=mysql.so
is not commented out.
The differences in php.ini files may also be why some scripts will work when called through a web browser, but will not work when called via the command line.
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0
linn at backendmedia dot com
10 years ago
For those of you who want the old CGI behaviour that changes to the actual directory of the script use:
chdir(dirname($_SERVER['argv'][0]));

at the beginning of your scripts.
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0
ben at slax0rnet dot com
10 years ago
Just a note for people trying to use interactive mode from the commandline.

The purpose of interactive mode is to parse code snippits without actually leaving php, and it works like this:

[root@localhost php-4.3.4]# php -a
Interactive mode enabled

<?php echo "hi!"; ?>
<note, here we would press CTRL-D to parse everything we've entered so far>
hi!
<?php exit(); ?>
<ctrl-d here again>
[root@localhost php-4.3.4]#

I noticed this somehow got ommited from the docs, hope it helps someone!
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-1
Willy T. Koch
5 years ago
I'm figuring out how to pipe an email to a php script with postfix. For the email user@example.com:

I created the following line in /etc/aliases:
user:        "|/www/file.php"

file.php is chmod 755

This works fine. But I wanted to test this without having to send an email every time. And this took some searching to figure out, yet it's oh-so simple:

To pipe the file email.txt to the script, write the following in the terminal window:

user@host: php file.php < testepost.txt

I was confused by the | in the aliases file, and didn't get what came after what, etc etc.

Regards,

Willy T. Koch
Norway
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-1
patrick smith
5 years ago
For command-line option definition and parsing, don't forget about the beauty of getopt().

There's a php-native version (http://php.net/getopt) and a PEAR package -- Console_GetOpt (http://pear.php.net/package/Console_Getopt).
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punk at studionew dot com
11 years ago
You can use this function to ask user to enter something.

<?php
function read ($length='255')
{
   if (!isset (
$GLOBALS['StdinPointer']))
   {
     
$GLOBALS['StdinPointer'] = fopen ("php://stdin","r");
   }
  
$line = fgets ($GLOBALS['StdinPointer'],$length);
   return
trim ($line);
}

// then

echo "Enter your name: ";
$name = read ();
echo
"\nHello $name! Where you came from? ";
$where = read ();
echo
"\nI see. $where is very good place.";
?>
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monte at ispi dot net
11 years ago
I had a problem with the $argv values getting split up when they contained plus (+) signs. Be sure to use the CLI version, not CGI to get around it.

Monte
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Popeye at P-t-B dot com
11 years ago
In *nix systems, use the WHICH command to show the location of the php binary executable. This is the path to use as the first line in your php shell script file. (#!/path/to/php -q) And execute php from the command line with the -v switch to see what version you are running.

example:

# which php
/usr/local/bin/php
# php -v
PHP 4.3.1 (cli) (built: Mar 27 2003 14:41:51)
Copyright (c) 1997-2002 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v1.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2002 Zend Technologies

In the above example, you would use: #!/usr/local/bin/php

Also note that, if you do not have the current/default directory in your PATH (.), you will have to use ./scriptfilename to execute your script file from the command line (or you will receive a "command not found" error). Use the ENV command to show your PATH environment variable value.
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volkany at celiknet dot com
11 years ago
Here goes a very simple clrscr function for newbies...
function clrscr() { system("clear"); }
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0
Alexander Plakidin
11 years ago
How to change current directory in PHP script to script's directory when running it from command line using PHP 4.3.0?
(you'll probably need to add this to older scripts when running them under PHP 4.3.0 for backwards compatibility)

Here's what I am using:
chdir(preg_replace('/\\/[^\\/]+$/',"",$PHP_SELF));

Note: documentation says that "PHP_SELF" is not available in command-line PHP scripts. Though, it IS available. Probably this will be changed in future version, so don't rely on this line of code...

Use $_SERVER['PHP_SELF'] instead of just $PHP_SELF if you have register_globals=Off
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wanna at stay dot anonynous dot com
11 years ago
TIP: If you want different versions of the configuration file  depending on what SAPI is used,just name them php.ini (apache module), php-cli.ini (CLI) and php-cgi.ini (CGI) and dump them all in the regular configuration directory. I.e no need to compile several versions of php anymore!
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jeff at noSpam[] dot genhex dot net
11 years ago
You can also call the script from the command line after chmod'ing the file (ie: chmod 755 file.php).

On your first line of the file, enter "#!/usr/bin/php" (or to wherever your php executable is located).  If you want to suppress the PHP headers, use the line of "#!/usr/bin/php -q" for your path.
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zager[..A..T..]teleaction.de
11 years ago
Under Solaris (at least 2.6) I have some problems with reading stdin. Original pbms report may be found here:
http://groups.google.com/groups?
q=Re:+%5BPHP%5D+Q+on+php://stdin+--+an+answer!&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-
8&oe=UTF-8&selm=3C74AF57.6090704%40Sun.COM&rnum=1

At a first glance the only solution for it is 'fgetcsv'

#!/usr/local/bin/php -q
<?php

set_magic_quotes_runtime
(0);
$fd=fopen("php://stdin","r");
if (!
$fd)
  exit;

while (!
feof ($fd))
{
 
$s = fgetcsv($fd,128,"\n");
  if (
$s==false)
    continue;

  echo
$s[0]."\n";
}
?> 

But... keep reading....

>>> I wrote
Hello,
Sometimes I hate PHP... ;)

Right today I was trapped by some strange bug in my code with reading stdin using fgetcsv.
After a not small investigation I found that strings like "foo\nboo\ndoo"goo\n (take note of double quatation sign in it)
interpreted by fgetcsv like:
1->foo\nboo\ndoo
2->goo
since double quotation mark has a special meaning and get stripped off of the input stream.
Indeed, according to PHP manual:
[quote]
array fgetcsv ( int fp, int length [, string delimiter [, string enclosure]])

[skip]
another delimiter with the optional third parameter. _The_enclosure_character_is_double_quote_,_unless_
it_is_specified_.
[skip]
_enclosure_is_added_from_PHP 4.3.0.       !!!!!!
[/quote]

Means no chance for us prior to 4.3.0 :(
But file() works just fine !!!! Of course by the price of memory, so be careful with large files.

set_magic_quotes_runtime(0); // important, do not forget it !!!
$s=file("php://stdin");
for ($i=0,$n=sizeof($s);$i<$n;$i++)
{
  do_something_useful(rtrim($s[$i]));
}

Conclusion:
1. If you have no double quotation mark in your data use fgetcsv
2. From 4.3.0 use   fgetcsv($fd,"\n",""); // I hope it will help
3. If you data is not huge use file("php://stdin");

Hope now it's cleared for 100% (to myself ;)

Good luck!
Dim

PS. Don't forget that it's only Solaris specific problem. Under Linux just use usual fgets()...
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0
jonNO at SPAMjellybob dot co dot uk
11 years ago
If you want to get the output of a command use the function shell_exec($command) - it returns a string with the output of the command.
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-1
earomero _{at}_ gmail.com
6 years ago
Here's <losbrutos at free dot fr> function modified to support unix like param syntax like <B Crawford> mentions:

<?php
function arguments($argv) {
   
$_ARG = array();
    foreach (
$argv as $arg) {
        if (
preg_match('#^-{1,2}([a-zA-Z0-9]*)=?(.*)$#', $arg, $matches)) {
           
$key = $matches[1];
            switch (
$matches[2]) {
                case
'':
                case
'true':
               
$arg = true;
                break;
                case
'false':
               
$arg = false;
                break;
                default:
               
$arg = $matches[2];
            }
           
           
/* make unix like -afd == -a -f -d */           
           
if(preg_match("/^-([a-zA-Z0-9]+)/", $matches[0], $match)) {
               
$string = $match[1];
                for(
$i=0; strlen($string) > $i; $i++) {
                   
$_ARG[$string[$i]] = true;
                }
            } else {
               
$_ARG[$key] = $arg;   
            }           
        } else {
           
$_ARG['input'][] = $arg;
        }       
    }
    return
$_ARG;   
}
?>

Sample:

eromero@ditto ~/workspace/snipplets $ foxogg2mp3.php asdf asdf --help --dest=/var/ -asd -h
Array
(
    [input] => Array
        (
            [0] => /usr/local/bin/foxogg2mp3.php
            [1] => asdf
            [2] => asdf
        )

    [help] => 1
    [dest] => /var/
    [a] => 1
    [s] => 1
    [d] => 1
    [h] => 1
)
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0
pyxl at jerrell dot com
12 years ago
Assuming --prefix=/usr/local/php, it's better to create a symlink from /usr/bin/php or /usr/local/bin/php to target /usr/local/php/bin/php so that it's both in your path and automatically correct every time you rebuild.  If you forgot to do that copy of the binary after a rebuild, you can do all kinds of wild goose chasing when things break.
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-1
Rizwan
3 years ago
A simple way to check if script is running from browser or cli.

<?php
if(defined('STDIN') )
  echo(
"Running from CLI");
else
  echo(
"Not Running from CLI");
?>
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-2
Anonymous
2 years ago
Instead of all these long and .. interesting .. ways to check if you're running from cli, you could always do this:

<?php
function isCli() {
    return
php_sapi_name()==="cli";
}
?>
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-1
drewish at katherinehouse dot com
8 years ago
When you're writing one line php scripts remember that 'php://stdin' is your friend. Here's a simple program I use to format PHP code for inclusion on my blog:

UNIX:
  cat test.php | php -r "print htmlentities(file_get_contents('php://stdin'));"

DOS/Windows:
  type test.php | php -r "print htmlentities(file_get_contents('php://stdin'));"
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-1
Adam, php(at)getwebspace.com
11 years ago
Ok, I've had a heck of a time with PHP > 4.3.x and whether to use CLI vs CGI. The CGI version of 4.3.2 would return (in browser):
---
No input file specified.
---

And the CLI version would return:
---
500 Internal Server Error
---

It appears that in CGI mode, PHP looks at the environment variable PATH_TRANSLATED to determine the script to execute and ignores command line. That is why in the absensce of this environment variable, you get "No input file specified." However, in CLI mode the HTTP headers are not printed. I believe this is intended behavior for both situations but creates a problem when you have a CGI wrapper that sends environment variables but passes the actual script name on the command line.

By modifying my CGI wrapper to create this PATH_TRANSLATED environment variable, it solved my problem, and I was able to run the CGI build of 4.3.2
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-1
c dot kelly[no--spam] at qfsaustrlia dot com dot au
11 years ago
In Windows [NT4.0 sp6a] the example
php -r ' echo getcwd();' does not work ; It appears you have to use the following php -r "echo getcwd();" --not the " around the command   to get the output to screen , just took me half an hour to figure out what was going on.
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-1
phpnotes at ssilk dot de
11 years ago
To hand over the GET-variables in interactive mode like in HTTP-Mode (e.g. your URI is myprog.html?hugo=bla&bla=hugo), you have to call

php myprog.html '&hugo=bla&bla=hugo'

(two & instead of ? and &!)

There just a little difference in the $ARGC, $ARGV values, but I think this is in those cases not relevant.
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-1
me at unreal4u dot com
2 years ago
You could use the Linux way of knowing that everything went ok by dying with a numeric code: 0 if everything went ok and practically anything else if something goes terribly wrong. That way;

<?php // hello.php
echo 'hello';
exit(
0);
?>
<?php
// bye.php
echo 'bye';
exit(
1);
?>
<?php
// hello-again.php
echo 'hi world!';
exit(
0);
?>

calling:
php hello.php && php bye.php && php hello-again.php

would only execute the first two scripts, the last one doesn't get executed because an error ocurred in that script.

Greetings.
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-1
kazink at gmail dot com
4 years ago
I had problems running php as CGI in thttpd. I have followed instructions posted by db at digitalmediacreation dot ch, but I was still getting "500 Internal Error" answer from the server. However, I had no problems running php as CLI using a simple wrapper file named index.cgi:

#!/usr/bin/php
<?php
 
require_once 'index.php';
?>

but i needed to pass user data through GET and POST, and this method couldn't handle it. I have spent 2 hours figuring out how to run the CGI mode properly, until I finally gave up, and done it in "manual" way. I have just added some code to the wrapper that reads GET and POST data into the proper variables:

#!/usr/bin/php
<?php

 
//parse the command line into the $_GET variable
 
parse_str($_SERVER['QUERY_STRING'], $_GET);
 
 
//parse the standard input into the $_POST variable
 
if (($_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] === 'POST')
   && (
$_SERVER['CONTENT_LENGTH'] > 0))
  {
   
parse_str(fread(STDIN, $_SERVER['CONTENT_LENGTH']), $_POST);
  }

  require_once
'index.php';
?>

It works well for me. It may be useful if someone else have similar problem.
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-1
tom at thomas dot harding dot net
5 years ago
To allow a "zero" option value:

replace:

$ret['options'][$com] = !empty($value) ? $value : true;

by:

$ret['options'][$com] = (strlen($value) > 0 ? $value : true);

In the sample below.

Thanks to Chris Chubb to point me out the problem
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-1
rob
7 years ago
i use emacs in c-mode for editing.  in 4.3, starting a cli script like so:

#!/usr/bin/php -q /* -*- c -*- */
<?php

told emacs to drop into c
-mode automatically when i loaded the file for editingthe '-q' flag didn't actually do anything (in the older cgi versions, it suppressed html output when the script was run) but it caused the commented mode line to be ignored by php.

in 5.2, '
-q' has apparently been deprecated.  replace it with '--' to achieve the 4.3 invocation-with-emacs-mode-line behavior:

#!/usr/bin/php -- /* -*- c -*- */
<?php

don'
t go back to your 4.3 system and replace '-q' with '--'; it seems to cause php to hang waiting on STDIN...
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-1
Wade
4 years ago
I've just found that the fact that the CLI does *not* change the current directory will make include() and require() calls with relative paths fail. This is because they are relative to the current directory, not to the current executing file, the documentation notwithstanding. In CGI mode, this is the same because it changes the current directory.

One solution is to call the CGI binary rather than the CLI one. A better solutions is to use dirname(__FILE__) in your path names.
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james_s2010 at NOSPAM dot hotmail dot com
6 years ago
I was looking for a way to interactively get a single character response from user. Using STDIN with fread, fgets and such will only work after pressing enter. So I came up with this instead:

#!/usr/bin/php -q
<?php
function inKey($vals) {
   
$inKey = "";
    While(!
in_array($inKey,$vals)) {
       
$inKey = trim(`read -s -n1 valu;echo \$valu`);
    }
    return
$inKey;
}
function
echoAT($Row,$Col,$prompt="") {
   
// Display prompt at specific screen coords
   
echo "\033[".$Row.";".$Col."H".$prompt;
}
   
// Display prompt at position 10,10
   
echoAT(10,10,"Opt : ");

   
// Define acceptable responses
   
$options = array("1","2","3","4","X");

   
// Get user response
   
$key = inKey($options);

   
// Display user response & exit
   
echoAT(12,10,"Pressed : $key\n");
?>

Hope this helps someone.
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-1
PSIKYO at mail dot dlut dot edu dot cn
10 months ago
If you edit a php file in windows, upload and run it on linux with command line method. You may encounter a running problem probably like that:

[root@ItsCloud02 wsdl]# ./lnxcli.php
Extension './lnxcli.php' not present.

Or you may encounter some other strange problem.
Care the enter key. In windows environment, enter key generate two binary characters '0D0A'. But in Linux, enter key generate just only a 'OA'.
I wish it can help someone if you are using windows to code php and run it as a command line program on linux.
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-1
ca at php dot spamtrak dot org
4 years ago
I append this to most of my PHP files, to allow command line unit testing of a class.  It ensures that the unit test is only run if the script is run directly, and won't be triggered by an include from another CLI script.

<?php
if (!empty($argc) && strstr($argv[0], basename(__FILE__))) {
  
$test = new TestClass();
  
$rv = $test->Test();
   die(
"Test returned $rv\n");
}
?>
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-1
dj dot rokx at gmail dot com
4 years ago
Use PHP as Scripting Language in Windows Vista and 7:

ASSOC .phs=PHPScript
FTPYE PHPScript=[path to]\php.exe -f "%1" -- %*

optional set PATHEXT=.phs;%PATHEXT%

now you can execute any php-script (ext: .phs) from the shell like a .vbs or .cmd.

"c:\testscript.phs arg1 arg2" or with the optional step "c:\testscript arg1 arg2"

i hope this helps somebody.
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-1
Anonymous
5 years ago
Here's  my modification of "thomas dot harding at laposte dot net" script (below) to read arguments from $argv of the form --name=VALUE and -flag.

"Input":
./script.php -a arg1 --opt1 arg2 -bcde --opt2=val2 arg3 arg4 arg5 -fg --opt3

"print_r Output":
Array
(
    [exec] => ./script.php
    [options] => Array
        (
            [0] => opt1
            [1] => Array
                (
                    [0] => opt2
                    [1] => val2
                )
            [2] => opt3
        )
    [flags] => Array
        (
            [0] => a
            [1] => b
            [2] => c
            [3] => d
            [4] => e
            [5] => f
            [6] => g
        )
    [arguments] => Array
        (
            [0] => arg1
            [1] => arg2
            [2] => arg3
            [3] => arg4
            [4] => arg5
        )
)

<?php
function arguments($args ) {
   
$ret = array(
       
'exec'      => '',
       
'options'   => array(),
       
'flags'     => array(),
       
'arguments' => array(),
    );

   
$ret['exec'] = array_shift( $args );

    while ((
$arg = array_shift($args)) != NULL) {
       
// Is it a option? (prefixed with --)
       
if ( substr($arg, 0, 2) === '--' ) {
           
$option = substr($arg, 2);

           
// is it the syntax '--option=argument'?
           
if (strpos($option,'=') !== FALSE)
               
array_push( $ret['options'], explode('=', $option, 2) );
            else
               
array_push( $ret['options'], $option );
           
            continue;
        }

       
// Is it a flag or a serial of flags? (prefixed with -)
       
if ( substr( $arg, 0, 1 ) === '-' ) {
            for (
$i = 1; isset($arg[$i]) ; $i++)
               
$ret['flags'][] = $arg[$i];

            continue;
        }

       
// finally, it is not option, nor flag
       
$ret['arguments'][] = $arg;
        continue;
    }
    return
$ret;
}
//function arguments
?>
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-1
technorati at gmail dot com
6 years ago
Here's an update to the script a couple of people gave below to read arguments from $argv of the form --name=VALUE and -flag. Changes include:

Don't use $_ARG - $_ is generally considered reserved for the engine.
Don't use regex where a string operation will do just as nicely
Don't overwrite --name=VALUE with -flag when 'name' and 'flag' are the same thing
Allow for VALUE that has an equals sign in it

<?php
function arguments($argv) {
   
$ARG = array();
    foreach (
$argv as $arg) {
        if (
strpos($arg, '--') === 0) {
           
$compspec = explode('=', $arg);
           
$key = str_replace('--', '', array_shift($compspec));
           
$value = join('=', $compspec);
           
$ARG[$key] = $value;
        } elseif (
strpos($arg, '-') === 0) {
           
$key = str_replace('-', '', $arg);
            if (!isset(
$ARG[$key])) $ARG[$key] = true;
        }
    }
    return
$ARG;
}
?>
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-1
losbrutos at free dot fr
6 years ago
an another "another variant" :

<?php
function arguments($argv)
{
 
$_ARG = array();
  foreach (
$argv as $arg)
  {
    if (
preg_match('#^-{1,2}([a-zA-Z0-9]*)=?(.*)$#', $arg, $matches))
    {
     
$key = $matches[1];
      switch (
$matches[2])
      {
        case
'':
        case
'true':
         
$arg = true;
          break;
        case
'false':
         
$arg = false;
          break;
        default:
         
$arg = $matches[2];
      }
     
$_ARG[$key] = $arg;
    }
    else
    {
     
$_ARG['input'][] = $arg;
    }
  }
  return
$_ARG;
}
?>

$php myscript.php arg1 -arg2=val2 --arg3=arg3 -arg4 --arg5 -arg6=false

Array
(
    [input] => Array
        (
            [0] => myscript.php
            [1] => arg1
        )

    [arg2] => val2
    [arg3] => arg3
    [arg4] => true
    [arg5] => true
    [arg5] => false
)
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-2
diego dot rodrigues at poli dot usp dot br
9 years ago
#!/usr/bin/php -q
<?php
/**********************************************
* Simple argv[] parser for CLI scripts
* Diego Mendes Rodrigues - S�o Paulo - Brazil
* diego.m.rodrigues [at] gmail [dot] com
* May/2005
**********************************************/

class arg_parser {
    var
$argc;
    var
$argv;
    var
$parsed;
    var
$force_this;

    function
arg_parser($force_this="") {
        global
$argc, $argv;
       
$this->argc = $argc;
       
$this->argv = $argv;
       
$this->parsed = array();
       
       
array_push($this->parsed,
                           array(
$this->argv[0]) );

        if ( !empty(
$force_this) )
            if (
is_array($force_this) )
               
$this->force_this = $force_this;

       
//Sending parameters to $parsed
       
if ( $this->argc > 1 ) {
            for(
$i=1 ; $i< $this->argc ; $i++) {
               
//We only have passed -xxxx
               
if ( substr($this->argv[$i],0,1) == "-" ) {
                   
//Se temos -xxxx xxxx
                   
if ( $this->argc > ($i+1) ) {
                        if (
substr($this->argv[$i+1],0,1) != "-" ) {
                           
array_push($this->parsed,
                                array(
$this->argv[$i],
                                   
$this->argv[$i+1]) );
                           
$i++;
                            continue;
                        }
                    }
                }
               
//We have passed -xxxxx1 xxxxx2
               
array_push($this->parsed,
                                                  array(
$this->argv[$i]) );
            }
        }

               
//Testing if all necessary parameters have been passed
               
$this->force();
    }

   
//Testing if one parameter have benn passed
   
function passed($argumento) {
        for(
$i=0 ; $i< $this->argc ; $i++)
            if (
$this->parsed[$i][0] == $argumento )
                return
$i;
        return
0;
    }

   
//Testing if you have passed a estra argument, -xxxx1 xxxxx2
   
function full_passed($argumento) {
       
$findArg = $this->passed($argumento);
        if (
$findArg )
            if (
count($this->parsed[$findArg] ) > 1 )
                return
$findArg;
        return
0;
    }

       
//Returns  xxxxx2 at a " -xxxx1 xxxxx2" call
   
function get_full_passed($argumento) {
               
$findArg = $this->full_passed($argumento);

                if (
$findArg )
                    return
$this->parsed[$findArg][1];

                return;
        }
   
   
//Necessary parameters to script
   
function force() {
        if (
is_array( $this->force_this ) ) {
            for(
$i=0 ; $i< count($this->force_this) ; $i++) {
                if (
$this->force_this[$i][1] == "SIMPLE"
                    
&& !$this->passed($this->force_this[$i][0])
                )
                    die(
"\n\nMissing " . $this->force_this[$i][0] . "\n\n");

                                if (
$this->force_this[$i][1] == "FULL"
                                    
&& !$this->full_passed($this->force_this[$i][0])
                )
                                        die(
"\n\nMissing " . $this->force_this[$i][0] ." <arg>\n\n");
            }
        }
    }
}

//Example
$forcar = array(
        array(
"-name", "FULL"),
        array(
"-email","SIMPLE") );

$parser = new arg_parser($forcar);

if (
$parser->passed("-show") )
    echo
"\nGoing...:";

echo
"\nName: " . $parser->get_full_passed("-name");

if (
$parser->full_passed("-email") ) 
    echo
"\nEmail: " . $parser->get_full_passed("-email");
else
        echo
"\nEmail: default";

if (
$parser->full_passed("-copy") )
        echo
"\nCopy To: " . $parser->get_full_passed("-copy");

echo
"\n\n";
?>

TESTING
=====
[diego@Homer diego]$ ./en_arg_parser.php -name -email cool -copy Ana

Missing -name <arg>

[diego@Homer diego]$ ./en_arg_parser.php -name diego -email cool -copy Ana

Name: diego
Email: cool
Copy To: Ana

[diego@Homer diego]$ ./en_arg_parser.php -name diego -email  -copy Ana

Name: diego
Email: default
Copy To: Ana

[diego@Homer diego]$ ./en_arg_parser.php -name diego -email

Name: diego
Email: default

[diego@Homer diego]$
up
-2
ben-php dot net at wefros dot com
12 years ago
PHP 4.3 and above automatically have STDOUT, STDIN, and STDERR openned ... but < 4.3.0 do not.  This is how you make code that will work in versions previous to PHP 4.3 and future versions without any changes:

<?php
   
if (version_compare(phpversion(),'4.3.0','<')) {
       
define('STDIN',fopen("php://stdin","r"));
       
define('STDOUT',fopen("php://stout","r"));
       
define('STDERR',fopen("php://sterr","r"));
       
register_shutdown_function( create_function( '' , 'fclose(STDIN); fclose(STDOUT); fclose(STDERR); return true;' ) );
    }

/* get some STDIN up to 256 bytes */
   
$str = fgets(STDIN,256);
?>
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