PHP 5.4.36 Released

prev

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

prevCofnij wewnętrzny wskaźnik tablicy

Opis

mixed prev ( array &$tablica )

Zwraca wartość z tablicy z miejsca poprzedniego od tego na które wskazywał wewnętrzny wskaźnik pliku, lub FALSE jeśli nie ma już więcej elementów.

Ostrzeżenie

Ta funkcja może zwrócić Boolean FALSE, ale może też zwrócić wartość innego typu niż Boolean, która oznacza wartość FALSE, takie jak 0 lub "". Aby uzyskać więcej informacji proszę zapoznać się z rozdziałem Typy logiczne. Można używać operatora === do testowania zwracanych wartości przez tę funkcję.

Informacja: Nie będziesz mógł odróznić początku tablicy od elementu FALSE typu bool'owskiego. Aby poprawnie przejść przez tablicę, która może zawierać elementy FALSE, zobacz funkcję each().

prev() zachowuje się tak jak next(), z tym że cofa wewnętrzny wskaźnik tablicy o jeden element do tyłu, zamiast przesuwać go do przodu.

Przykład #1 Przykład użycia funkcji prev() i podobnych

<?php
$transport 
= array('stopa''rower''samochód''samolot');
$tryb current($transport); // $tryb = 'stopa';
$tryb next($transport);    // $tryb = 'rower';
$tryb next($transport);    // $tryb = 'samochód';
$tryb prev($transport);    // $tryb = 'rower';
$tryb end($transport);     // $tryb = 'samolot';
?>

Patrz także: current(), end(), next(), reset() i each().

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User Contributed Notes 3 notes

up
2
soapergem at gmail dot com
5 years ago
Here's a slight revision to xmlich02's backwards iteration example. The problem with his/her example is that it will halt if any of the array elements are boolean false, while this version will not.

<?php

end
($ar);
while ( !
is_null($key = key($ar)) ) {
   
$val = current($ar);
    echo
"{$key} => {$val}\n";
   
prev($ar);
}

?>
up
1
MicroVB INC
8 months ago
This function searches for the closest element in an array by key value, and returns the key/value pair, or false if not found.

<?php
function nearest($array, $value, $exact=false) {
       
// Initialize Variables
   
$next = false;
   
$prev = false;
   
$return = false;
   
    if(!isset(
$array[$value]) && !$exact) {
       
// Insert element that doesn't exist so nearest can be found
       
$array[$value] = '-';
    }
   
    if(
$exact && isset($array[$value])) {
               
// If exact match found, and searching for exact (not nearest), return result.
       
$return = Array($value=>$array[$value]);
    } else {
           
// Sort array so injected record is near relative numerics
       
ksort($array); // Sort array on key

                // Loop through array until match is found, then set $prev and $next to the respective keys if exist
       
while ( !is_null($key = key($array)) ) {
           
$val = current($array);
            if(
$key == $value) {
               
prev($array); // Get entry before this one
               
$prev = key($array);
               
next($array);         // Skip current entry as this was what we were looking for nearest to
               
next($array); // Get entry after this one
               
$next = key($array);
                break;
            }
           
next($array);
        }

        if(
$prev && $next) {
            if((
$long - $prev) > ($next - $long)) {
                                
// Previous is closer
               
$return = Array($prev=>$array[$prev]);
            } else {
                                
// Next is closer
               
$return = Array($next=>$array[$next]);
            }
        } elseif (
$prev || $next) {
            if(
$prev) {
                                
// Only Previous exists
               
$return = Array($prev=>$array[$prev]);
            } elseif (
$next) {
                                
// Only Next exists
               
$return = Array($next=>$array[$next]);
            }
        }
    }

       
// Return resulting Array().   $return is false if nothing matches the closest conditions, or if exact is specified and key does not exist.       
   
return $return;
}
?>

Example usage (to lookup the closest color in an array)
<?php
$mycolors
= Array(
   
5001046=>'Abbey',
   
1774596=>'Acadia',
   
8171681=>'Acapulco',
   
6970651=>'Acorn',
   
13238245=>'Aero Blue',
   
7423635=>'Affair',
   
8803850=>'Afghan Tan',
   
13943976=>'Akaroa',
   
16777215=>'Alabaster',
   
16116179=>'Albescent White',
   
10176259=>'Alert Tan',
   
30371=>'Allports'
);

// Color to search for in Hex
$color = 'C0C0C0';

// Convert Hex to Long to compare with array() keys
$colorlong = base_convert($color,16,10);

// Check for an exact match
$result = nearest($mycolors, $colorlong, true);
if(
$result) {
    echo
"An exact match was found for #" . $color . " which is called '" . $result[key($result)] . "'";
} else {
    echo
"No exact match was found";
}

if(!
$result) {
   
// Check for closest match
   
$result = nearest($mycolors, $colorlong, true);
    if(
$result) {
       
// Match found
       
echo "The closest match for #" . $color . " is #" . base_convert(key($result),10,16) . " which is called '" . $result[key($result)] . "'";
    } else {
       
// No match found
       
echo "No match was found for #" . $color;
    } 
}
?>
up
-1
MicroVB INC
8 months ago
Some corrections to the previous function.
- When prev() and next() distance is now calculated properly returning the 'closer' one.
- When exact is false, and an item exists with the key searched for, it now returns that entry instead of next/prev closest
- At ends of the array, sometimes when moving past using next() or prev(), it caused results to die. This was corrected.
- Added field to result stating whether the match was 'exact' ('exact'=>true), or nearest ('exact'=>false)

<?php
function nearest($array, $value, $exact=false) {
   
// Initialize Variables
   
$next = false;
   
$prev = false;
   
$return = false;

   
$arr_begin = false;
   
$arr_end = false;
       
   
$exact_match = false;
       
   
    if(
$exact && isset($array[$value])) {
       
// If exact match found, and searching for exact (not nearest), return result.
       
$return = Array($value=>$array[$value]);
       
$exact_match = true;
    } elseif (!
$exact && isset($array[$value])) {
       
// If exact match found, and searching for nearest, return result.
       
$return = Array($value=>$array[$value]);
       
$exact_match = true;
    } else {

        if(!isset(
$array[$value]) && !$exact) {
           
// Insert element that doesn't exist so nearest can be found
           
$array[$value] = '-';
        }
   
       
// Sort array so injected record is near relative numerics
       
ksort($array); // Sort array on key

        // Set start and end keys
       
$arr_begin = key($array);
       
end($array);
       
$arr_end = key($array);
       
reset($array);
       
       
// Loop through array until match is found, then set $prev and $next to the respective keys if exist
       
while ( !is_null($key = key($array)) ) {
           
$val = current($array);
            if(
$key == $value) {
                if(
$value <> $arr_begin) {
                   
prev($array); // Get entry before this one
                   
$prev = key($array);
                }
                                   
               
next($array);         // Skip current entry as this was what we were looking for nearest to
               
               
if($value <> $arr_end) {
                   
next($array); // Get entry after this one
                   
$next = key($array);
                }
                break;
            }
           
next($array);
        }

        if(
$prev && $next) {
            if((
$value - $prev) < ($next - $value)) {
               
// Previous is closer
               
$return = Array($prev=>$array[$prev]);
            } else {
               
// Next is closer
               
$return = Array($next=>$array[$next]);
            }
        } elseif (
$prev || $next) {
            if(
$prev) {
               
// Only Previous exists
               
$return = Array($prev=>$array[$prev]);
            } elseif (
$next) {
               
// Only Next exists
               
$return = Array($next=>$array[$next]);
            }
        }
    }

   
// Return resulting Array().   $return is false if nothing matches the closest conditions, or if exact is specified and key does not exist.       
   
if($return) {
        return
$return+Array('exact'=>$exact_match);
    } else {
        return
false;
    }
}
?>

Just to clarify, this function will return either an Array() containing the $key=>$value pair of the result and 'exact'=>(bool) whether the match was exact or not.

To access the $key=>$value pair, can be done as follows :
<?php

    $result
= nearest( ... );  // Just here for clarification of the position for the code that follows.
    
   
if($result) {
       
// Output the Key
       
echo key($result);

       
// Output the Value
       
echo $result( key($result) );

       
// Output if exact match
       
if($result['exact']) {
            echo
'This was an EXACT match';
        } else {
            echo
'This result was found with fuzzy logic';
        }

    } else {

        echo
'No result found';

    }

?>
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