PHP 5.4.36 Released

fnmatch

(PHP 4 >= 4.3.0, PHP 5)

fnmatchCompara un nombre de fichero con un patrón

Descripción

bool fnmatch ( string $pattern , string $string [, int $flags = 0 ] )

fnmatch() comprueba si el string pasado coincide con el comodín tipo shell pattern.

Parámetros

pattern

El patrón comodín tipo shell.

string

La cadena comprobada. Esta función es especialmente útil con nombres de fichero, pero también se puede usar con cadenas normales.

El usuario medio puede estar familiarizado con patrones tipo shell, o por lo menos con sus formas más sencillas de los comodines '?' y '*' por lo que usar fnmatch() en vez de preg_match() para el proceso de entrada de expresiones de búsqueda puede ser una forma más convenienete para ususarios no programadores.

flags

El valor de flags puede ser una combinación de las siguientes banderas, unidas por el operador binario OR (|).

Un lista de las posibles banderas para fnmatch()
Flag Descripción
FNM_NOESCAPE Deshabilita el escape de la barra invertida.
FNM_PATHNAME Una barra en la cadena sólo coincide con otra en el patrón dado.
FNM_PERIOD Un punto en la cadena debe coincidir exactamente con otro en el patrón dado.
FNM_CASEFOLD Comparación sensible a mayúsculas-minúsculas. Parte de la extensión GNU.

Valores devueltos

Devuelve TRUE si hay coincidencia, FALSE si no.

Historial de cambios

Versión Descripción
5.3.0 Esta función ahora está disponible en plataformas Windows.

Ejemplos

Ejemplo #1 Comprobar un adjetivo con un patrón comodín tipo shell

<?php
if (fnmatch("*o[bs]curo"$cadena)) {
  echo 
"alguna forma de oscuro ...";
}
?>

Notas

Advertencia

Por ahora esta función no está disponible en sistemas que no admiten POSIX excepto Windows.

Ver también

  • glob() - Buscar coincidencias de nombres de ruta con un patrón
  • preg_match() - Realiza una comparación con una expresión regular
  • sscanf() - Interpreta un string de entrada de acuerdo con un formato
  • printf() - Imprimir una cadena con formato
  • sprintf() - Devuelve un string formateado

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User Contributed Notes 9 notes

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1
jk at ricochetsolutions dot com
8 years ago
soywiz's function didnt seem to work for me, but this did.

<?php
if(!function_exists('fnmatch')) {

    function
fnmatch($pattern, $string) {
        return
preg_match("#^".strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.'))."$#i", $string);
    }
// end

} // end if
?>
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1
me at rowanlewis dot com
4 years ago
Here's a definitive solution, which supports negative character classes and the four documented flags.

<?php
   
   
if (!function_exists('fnmatch')) {
       
define('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
       
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
       
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
       
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
       
        function
fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
            return
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags);
        }
    }
   
    function
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
       
$modifiers = null;
       
$transforms = array(
           
'\*'    => '.*',
           
'\?'    => '.',
           
'\[\!'    => '[^',
           
'\['    => '[',
           
'\]'    => ']',
           
'\.'    => '\.',
           
'\\'    => '\\\\'
       
);
       
       
// Forward slash in string must be in pattern:
       
if ($flags & FNM_PATHNAME) {
           
$transforms['\*'] = '[^/]*';
        }
       
       
// Back slash should not be escaped:
       
if ($flags & FNM_NOESCAPE) {
            unset(
$transforms['\\']);
        }
       
       
// Perform case insensitive match:
       
if ($flags & FNM_CASEFOLD) {
           
$modifiers .= 'i';
        }
       
       
// Period at start must be the same as pattern:
       
if ($flags & FNM_PERIOD) {
            if (
strpos($string, '.') === 0 && strpos($pattern, '.') !== 0) return false;
        }
       
       
$pattern = '#^'
           
. strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), $transforms)
            .
'$#'
           
. $modifiers;
       
        return (boolean)
preg_match($pattern, $string);
    }
   
?>

This probably needs further testing, but it seems to function identically to the native fnmatch implementation.
up
1
Sinured
6 years ago
An addition to my previous note: My statement regarding the FNM_* constants was wrong. They are available on POSIX-compliant systems (in other words, if fnmatch() is defined).
up
1
theboydanny at gmail dot com
7 years ago
About the windows compat functions below:
I needed fnmatch for a application that had to work on Windows, took a look here and tested both. Jk's works for me, soywiz didn't (on WinXPSP2, PHP 5.2.3).
The only difference between them is addcslashes (soywiz) instead of preg_quote (jk). They _should_ both work, but for some reason soywiz's didn't for me. So YMMV.
However, to make JK's fnmatch() work with the example in the documentation, you also have to strtr the [ and ] in $pattern.
<?php
$pattern
= strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.', '\[' => '[', '\]' => ']'));
?>
And thanks for the functions, guys.
up
1
Sinured
7 years ago
Possible flags (scratched out of fnmatch.h):
...::...

FNM_PATHNAME:
> Slash in $string only matches slash in $pattern.

FNM_PERIOD:
> Leading period in $string must be exactly matched by period in $pattern.

FNM_NOESCAPE:
> Disable backslash escaping.

FNM_NOSYS:
> Obsolescent.

FNM_FILE_NAME:
> Alias of FNM_PATHNAME.

FNM_LEADING_DIR:
> From fnmatch.h: /* Ignore `/...' after a match.  */

FNM_CASEFOLD:
> Caseless match.

Since they’re appearing in file.c, but are not available in PHP, we’ll have to define them ourselves:
<?php
define
('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
// GNU extensions
define('FNM_FILE_NAME', FNM_PATHNAME);
define('FNM_LEADING_DIR', 8);
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
?>

I didn’t test any of these except casefold, which worked for me.
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0
bwilcock at gmail dot com
1 year ago
fnmatch is not 100% reliable. Bug 14185 is still open and may or may not have been patched.

In certain wildcard circumstance fnmatch("*needle*", $haystack, match) returns false intermittantly

However stripos or preg returns a "find".
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0
bernd dot ebert at gmx dot net
2 years ago
There is a problem within the  pcre_fnmatch-Function concerning backslashes. Those will be masked by preq_quote and ADDITONALLY by the strtr if FN_NOESCAPE is not set -> something like "*a(*" will finally result in "#^.*a\\(.*$#". Note the double backslash which effectively does NOT mask the "(" correctly.

Since preq_quote always matches a backslash I don't think that this'll work with using preg_quote at all.
up
0
Frederik Krautwald
7 years ago
soywiz's function still doesn't seem to work -- at least not with PHP 5.2.3 on Windows -- but jk's does.
up
0
phlipping at yahoo dot com
11 years ago
you couls also try this function that I wrote before I found fnmatch:

function WildToReg($str)
{
  $s = "";  
  for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($str); $i++)
  {
   $c = $str{$i};
   if ($c =='?')
    $s .= '.'; // any character
   else if ($c == '*')   
    $s .= '.*'; // 0 or more any characters   
   else if ($c == '[' || $c == ']')
    $s .= $c;  // one of characters within []
   else
    $s .= '\\' . $c;
  }
  $s = '^' . $s . '$';

  //trim redundant ^ or $
  //eg ^.*\.txt$ matches exactly the same as \.txt$
  if (substr($s,0,3) == "^.*")
   $s = substr($s,3);
  if (substr($s,-3,3) == ".*$")
   $s = substr($s,0,-3);
  return $s;
}

if (ereg(WildToReg("*.txt"), $fn))
  print "$fn is a text file";
else
  print "$fn is not a text file";
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