SunshinePHP Developer Conference 2015

oci_connect

(PHP 5, PECL OCI8 >= 1.1.0)

oci_connectConecta a una base de datos de Oracle

Descripción

resource oci_connect ( string $username , string $password [, string $connection_string [, string $character_set [, int $session_mode ]]] )

Devuelve un identificador de conexión necesario para la mayoría de las operaciones de OCI8.

Véase Manejo de conexiones para obtener información general sobre la gestión y agrupamiento de conexiones.

Desde PHP 5.1.2 (PECL OCI8 1.1), se puede usar oci_close() para cerrar conexiones.

La segunda y subsiguientes llamadas a oci_connect() con los mismos parámetros devolverán el gestor de conexión devuelto desde la primera llamada. Esto significa que las transacciones de un gestor también son las de los demás gestores, ya que usan la misma conexión subyacente a la base de datos. Si dos gestores necesitan ser aislados transaccionalmente uno de otro, use oci_new_connect() en su lugar.

Parámetros

username

El nombre de usuario de Oracle.

password

La contraseña para username.

connection_string

Contiene la instancia de Oracle a la que conectarse. Puede ser una » cadena de Conexión Sencilla (Easy Connect), o un Nombre de Conexión del fichero tnsnames.ora, o el nombre de una instancia local de Oracle.

Si no se especifica, PHP utiliza variables de entorno como TWO_TASK (en Linux) o LOCAL (en Windows) y ORACLE_SID para determinar la instancia de Oracle a la que conectarse.

Para utilizar el método de nomenclatura de Conexión Sencila, PHP debe estar vinculado con las bibliotecas cliente de Oracle 10g o superiores. La cadena de Conexión Sencilla para Oracle 10g se utiliza de la siguiente forma: [//]nombre_host[:puerto][/nombre_servicio]. Desde Oracle 11g, la sintaxis es: [//]nombre_host[:puerto][/nombre_servicio][:tipo_servicio][/nombre_instancia]. Los nombres de servicio pueden encontrarse ejecuntado la utilidad de Oracle lsnrctl status en el servidor donde se encuentra la base de datos.

El fichero tnsnames.ora puede estar en la ruta de búsqueda de Oracle Net, la cual incluye $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin y /etc. De forma alternativa, establezca TNS_ADMIN para que $TNS_ADMIN/tnsnames.ora sea leído. Asegúrse que el demonio web tiene acceso de lectura al fichero.

character_set

Determina el juego de caracteres usado por las bibliotecas cliente de Oracle. El juego de caracteres no tiene por que coinicidir con el utilizado en la base de datos. Si no coinicide, Oracle intentará hacer lo posible para convertir los datos entre los dos juegos de caracteres. Dependiendo del juego de caracteres que se esté usando, podría no proporcionarse resultados útiles. La conversión también añade algo de carga extra de tiempo.

Si no se especifica, las bibliotacas cliente de Oracle determinarán el juego de caracteres desde la variable de entorno NLS_LANG.

Pasar este parámetro puede reducir el tiempo que toma en conectarse.

session_mode

Este parámetro está disponible desde la versión 5 de PHP (PECL OCI8 1.1) y acepta los siguientes valores: OCI_DEFAULT, OCI_SYSOPER y OCI_SYSDBA. Si se especifica OCI_SYSOPER o OCI_SYSDBA, esta función intentará establecer una conexión privilegiada con las credenciales externas. Las conexiones privilegiadas están desactivadas por omisión. Para activarlas hay que establecer oci8.privileged_connect a On.

En PHP 5.3 (PECL OCI8 1.3.4) se introdujo el valor de modo OCI_CRED_EXT. Esto indica a Oracle que utilice la autenticación Externa o del SO, la cual debe estar configurada en la base de datos. La bandera OCI_CRED_EXT sólo puede usarse con el nombre de usuario "/" y la contraseña en blanco. oci8.privileged_connect podría ser On o Off.

OCI_CRED_EXT podría estar en combinación con los modos OCI_SYSOPER o OCI_SYSDBA.

OCI_CRED_EXT no se admite en Windows por razones de seguridad.

Valores devueltos

Devuelve un identificador de conexión, o FALSE en caso de error.

Ejemplos

Ejemplo #1 Uso básico de oci_connect() utilizando la sintaxis de Easy Connect

<?php

// Conectar al servicio XE (es deicr, la base de datos) en la máquina "localhost"
$conn oci_connect('hr''welcome''localhost/XE');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

Ejemplo #2 Uso básico de oci_connect() utilizando un nombre de Network Connect

<?php

// Conectar a la base de datos MYDB descrita en el fichero tnsnames.ora,
// Un ejemplo de una entrada de tnsnames.ora para MYDB podría ser:
//   MYDB =
//     (DESCRIPTION =
//       (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = mymachine.oracle.com)(PORT = 1521))
//       (CONNECT_DATA =
//         (SERVER = DEDICATED)
//         (SERVICE_NAME = XE)
//       )
//     )

$conn oci_connect('hr''welcome''MYDB');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

Ejemplo #3 oci_connect() con un conjunto de caracteres explícito

<?php

$conn 
oci_connect('hr''welcome''localhost/XE''AL32UTF8');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

Ejemplo #4 Usar múltiples llamadas a oci_connect()

<?php

$c1 
oci_connect("hr""welcome"'localhost/XE');
$c2 oci_connect("hr""welcome"'localhost/XE');

// $c1 y $c2 muestran el mismo id de recurso de PHP, ya que usan la
// misma conexión subyacente a la base de datos
echo "c1 is $c1<br>\n";
echo 
"c2 is $c2<br>\n";

function 
create_table($conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"create table hallo (test varchar2(64))");
    
oci_execute($stmt);
    echo 
"Created table<br>\n";
}

function 
drop_table($conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"drop table hallo");
    
oci_execute($stmt);
    echo 
"Dropped table<br>\n";
}

function 
insert_data($connname$conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"insert into hallo
              values(to_char(sysdate,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'))"
);
    
oci_execute($stmtOCI_DEFAULT);
    echo 
"$connname inserted row without committing<br>\n";
}

function 
rollback($connname$conn)
{
    
oci_rollback($conn);
    echo 
"$connname rollback<br>\n";
}

function 
select_data($connname$conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"select * from hallo");
    
oci_execute($stmtOCI_DEFAULT);
    echo 
"$connname ----selecting<br>\n";
    while (
oci_fetch($stmt)) {
        echo 
"    " oci_result($stmt"TEST") . "<br>\n";
    }
    echo 
"$connname ----done<br>\n";
}

create_table($c1);

insert_data('c1'$c1);   // Insertar una fila usando c1
sleep(2);                 // Dormir para mostrar una marca de tiempo diferente en la 2ª fila
insert_data('c2'$c2);   // Insertar una fila usando c2

select_data('c1'$c1);   // Son devueltas ambas inserciones
select_data('c2'$c2);   // Son devueltas ambas inserciones

rollback('c1'$c1);      // Revertir usando c1

select_data('c1'$c1);   // Ambas inserciones han sido revertidas
select_data('c2'$c2);

drop_table($c1);

// El cierre de una de las conexiones hace que la variable de PHP sea inutilizable, aunque
// se podría utilizar la otra
oci_close($c1);
echo 
"c1 is $c1<br>\n";
echo 
"c2 is $c2<br>\n";


// La salida es:
//    c1 is Resource id #5
//    c2 is Resource id #5
//    Created table
//    c1 inserted row without committing
//    c2 inserted row without committing
//    c1 ----selecting
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:43
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:45
//    c1 ----done
//    c2 ----selecting
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:43
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:45
//    c2 ----done
//    c1 rollback
//    c1 ----selecting
//    c1 ----done
//    c2 ----selecting
//    c2 ----done
//    Dropped table
//    c1 is 
//    c2 is Resource id #5

?>

Notas

Nota:

Una instalación o configuración incorrecta de la extensión OCI8 a menudo se manifestará como un problema o error de conexión. Véase la sección Instalación/Configuración para obtener información sobre la solución de problemas.

Ver también

  • oci_pconnect() - Conectar a una base de datos de Oracle usando una conexión persistente
  • oci_new_connect() - Conectar al servidor de Oracle usando una conexión única
  • oci_close() - Cierra una conexión a Oracle

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User Contributed Notes 12 notes

up
2
M0no at ethonfusino dot com
11 years ago
If your oracle database is on a remote system within your local network and you don't want to worry about the tnsnames file you can try this.

$db = "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.XX.XXX)(PORT = 1521)))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=XXXX)))";

$c1 = ocilogon("name","password",$db);

Hope this helps someone.
up
1
Leandro da Cunha Campos
5 years ago
ONE ALTERNATIVE OF CONNECT IN ORACLE RAC "Real Application Clusters"

<?php
$dbstr
="(DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =ip1)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = banco)
(INSTANCE_NAME = banco1)))"
;

$dbstr1 ="(DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =ip2)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = banco)
(INSTANCE_NAME = banco2)))"
;

if(!@(
$conn = oci_connect('user','password',$dbstr1)))
{
$conn = oci_connect('user','password',$dbstr) or die (ocierror()); }
?>
up
1
sixd at php dot net
6 years ago
If you want to specify a connection timeout in case there is network problem, you can edit the client side (e.g. PHP side) sqlnet.ora file and set SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT. This sets the upper time limit for establishing a connection right through to the DB, including the time for attempts to connect to other services.   It is available from Oracle 10.2.0.3 onwards.

In Oracle 11.1, a slightly lighter-weight solution TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT was introduced.  It also is a sqlnet.ora parameter.  It bounds just the TCP connection establishment time, which is mostly where connection problem are seen.

The client sqlnet.ora file should be put in the same directory as the tnsnames.ora file.
up
1
ben at onshop dot co dot uk
9 years ago
There is a useful solution to the problem of securing connection information in the PHP Cookbook (O'Reilly) by David Sklar and Adam Trachtenberg. They propose using 'SetEnv' in the Apache configuration and then accessing the values from within a script using $_SERVER.

Unfortunately using the 'SetEnv' solution exposes your connection information to all users of that virtual host. If they run phpinfo.php or display $_SERVER, I found that they will see the password from any file under the root of that virtual host.

To restrict exposure to a particular directory or specific file:

1. First put an 'Include' to the secret file in httpd.conf. For example:

Include "/web/private/secret.txt"

2. In the password file, use the 'SetEnvIf' directive to enable the Environment variables by directory only or within a specific file. For example:

- For all files in the directory:

SetEnvIf Request_URI "/path/to/my/directory" ORACLE_PASS=5gHj790j

- For a specific file in the directory

SetEnvIf Request_URI "/path/to/my/directory/connection.oracle.php" ORACLE_PASS=5gHj790j
up
0
peter at goldthorp dot com
3 years ago
I started getting "ORA-12514: TNS:listener does not currently know of service requested in connect descriptor" errors when I upgraded my database instance from 10.2 to 11.2.  For some reason it would not resolve the oci_connect calls with the Easy Connect syntax (easy connect calls from sqlplus were fine).  I was able to workaround the issue by passing a tns connect string:

<?php
$db
= "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.XX.XXX)(PORT = 1521)))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=XXXX)))";

$c1 = oci_connect("name","password",$db);
?>
up
0
jtacon at php dot net
3 years ago
If you upgrades the OCI8, be sure to use the latest oracle instantclient version, otherwise you can receive an "ORA-24315: illegal attribute type" when trying to connect due to incompatibility with some versions.

HTH,
Javier Tacón
up
0
Jonathon Robinson
4 years ago
Regarding the following statement in the documentation:
"The second and subsequent calls to oci_connect() with the same parameters will return the connection handle returned from the first call."

There's one caveat here.  Subsequent calls to oci_connect() will only return the same connection handle as the first call as long as a reference is held to the original handle.

For example, the following code will generate *one* connection handle:

<?php
$dbh
= oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
// Do stuff
$dbh = oci_connect$username, $password, $conn_info);
// Do more stuff

The follow code will generate *two* connection handles:
getData();
// Do stuff
getData();
// Do more stuff

getData() {
   
$dbh = oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
   
// Do stuff
}
?>

This is the result of PHP garbage collecting the handle at the end of the method scope.

If you want to isolate your DB layer through function calls but still want to leverage the fact that oci_connect can return the same handle, just keep a reference to the handle like so:

<?php
getData
($username, $password, $conn_info) {
   
$dbh = oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
   
$key = hash('md5', "$username|$password|$conn_info");
   
$GLOBALS[$key] = $dbh;
   
// Do stuff
}
?>

I originally logged this as a bug but apparently this is the expected behaviour, likely because oci_close($dbh) just calls unset($dbh).
up
0
drew dot carmichael at gmail dot com
5 years ago
When using the OCI_CRED_EXT in php
if the ENV $ORACLE_SID is set the DB does not need to be specified explicitly and the connection will fail unless you provide a NULL DB value when creating the connection.

The $ORACLE_SID trumps the TNS name look up for the connection. So even a manual connection string in the DB parameter will fail.

So when the $ORACLE_SID Env is set a NULL passed instead of the DB name connects successfully.

Hope this saves some hair pulling when moving to %.3 and OS Authentications
up
0
sebastien.barbieri _at_ gmail dot com
8 years ago
When you are using Oracle 9.2+ I would say that you MUST use the CHARSET parameter.

Of course, you will not notice it until there is accented character... so just specify it and you will avoid a big headache.

So for example here is our Oracle internal conf:
select * from nls_database_parameters;

PARAMETER                      VALUE
------------------------------ ----------------------------------------

NLS_LANGUAGE                   AMERICAN
NLS_TERRITORY                  AMERICA
NLS_ISO_CURRENCY               AMERICA
NLS_CHARACTERSET               WE8ISO8859P15


And there our oci_connect call:

$dbch=ocilogon($user,$pass,$connectString,"WE8ISO8859P15");

Without that, you will get question mark (inversed), squares… instead of most accented character.

Don’t forget to use that for writing as well as for reading.
up
-1
Anonymous
2 years ago
How to connect from PHP to an Oracle database using OID (Oracle Internet Directory):

OID is like a lookup index that contains connection strings for connecting to various databases. Without OID, a database connection string would be stored directly in the code settings and used by the PHP code to connect to a database. With OID, a lookup can be made to the OID LDAP to acquire the database connection string. Then the PHP code will use the acquired database connection string to connect to the database as before.

OID allows a DBA to manage/change which database server that an application uses without having to change any database settings in the PHP application itself or on the application server.

Here are the basic steps for PHP to connect to a database via OID:

- The DBA should provide you the connection information for the OID LDAP as well as the username/password for the database connection.
- Connect to the OID LDAP using the provided information
- Search for the appropriate LDAP record
- Get the connection string data from the record attribute, \&quot;orclnetdescstring\&quot;
- Close the LDAP connection
- Use the acquired connection string data to connect to the database as usual using the provided database username/password.

Here is basic sample code to do this:

// Get connection string from OID LDAP

    $ds=ldap_connect($servername,$serverport); // Connect to ldap
    $r=ldap_bind($ds); // Bind to ldap
    $sr = ldap_search($ds, \&quot;cn=OracleContext,dc=___,dc=___,dc=___\&quot;, \&quot;cn=$sid\&quot;); // Run query
    $info = ldap_get_entries($ds, $sr); // Get entries
    ldap_close($ds); // Close connection

    $dbconnectstring = $info[0][\&quot;orclnetdescstring\&quot;][0]; // Extract db connect string from ldap search result array

// Connect to database using acquired connection string from OID

    $dbconnection = oci_connect ($username,$password,$dbconnectstring);
up
-2
blake dot lewis at gmail dot com
1 year ago
Using ldap for Oracle name resolution:

  The web server will need the environmental variable TNS_ADMIN='Directory of tnsname.ora' unless the default location is used. I use '/etc/tns_admin'. Confirm using the phpinfo().

  There are three files needed in the TNS_ADMIN location: tnsnames.ora, sqlnet.ora and ldap.ora. If you are only using ldap, tnsnames.ora is not needed.

  To sqlnet.ora add:
     NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(TNSNAMES,LDAP)

  To ldap.ora add:
     DIRECTORY_SERVERS=(ldap_server_fqdn:port)
     DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT=""
     DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE=OID

  For a quick and dirty ldap tnsnames server use tnsManager by Dave Berry. Oracle OID or Openldap can used, but are complicated to setup. tnsManager is a no brainer. The quick part: give it a tnsnames.ora file and start it up. The dirty parts: I can't get Toad and SQLDeveloper to work with it, it ignores the domain and it is no longer being maintained.

  The order of values in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH in sqlnet.ora determines which look up 'adapter' is used, in this case it is tnsnames.ora file and then ldap. I use ldap for general consumption and tnsnames.ora file to override ldap or entries that are not for general consumption.

  If you have the full Oracle client you have tnsping. 'tnsping ORACLE_SID' will tell you what adapter you are using: 'Used LDAP adapter to resolve the alias'.

<?php
 
echo system("/PATH/tnsping ".$ORACLE_SID." 2>&1")."<br />";
  echo
'TNS_ADMIN='.getenv('TNS_ADMIN');
?>

ISSUE:
  If connecting with only ORACLE_SID and not ORACLE_SID.DB_DOMAIN, the value of NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN from sqlnet.ora is appended, then for some reason PHP tries the HOSTNAME adapter, and if the database name resolves in DNS, it will fail connecting using the database name as the hostname, because neither SID nor SERVICE_NAME are defined.
  If using tnsManager append '.ANY_DOMAIN' to $ORACLE_SID to hack around the issue above.

  I have tested with:
       11.1.0.7 full client and PHP 5.1.6
       11.2.0.2 full client and PHP 5.4.11

  I have heard that LDAP lookup does not work with older instantclients.
up
-3
blake dot lewis at gmail dot com
1 year ago
Using ldap for Oracle name resolution:

  The web server needs the environmental variable TNS_ADMIN='Directory of tnsname.ora'. I use '/etc/tns_admin'. Confirm using the phpinfo() function.

  There are three files needed in the TNS_ADMIN location: tnsnames.ora, sqlnet.ora and ldap.ora. If you are only using ldap, tnsnames.ora is not needed.

  To sqlnet.ora add:
     NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(TNSNAMES,LDAP)

  To ldap.ora add:
     DIRECTORY_SERVERS=(ldap_fqdn_hostname:1575)
     DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT=""
     DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE=OID

  For a quick and dirty ldap tnsnames server use tnsManager by Dave Berry. Oracle OID or Openldap can used, but are complicated to setup. tnsManager is a no brainer. The default port is 1575.

  The order of values in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH from sqlnet.ora determines which look up 'adapter' is used first, in this case it is tnsnames.ora file and then ldap. I use ldap for general consumption and tnsnames.ora file to override ldap or entries that are not for general consumption.

  If you have the full Oracle client you have tnsping. 'tnsping ORACLE_SID' will tell you what adapter you are using: 'Used LDAP adapter to resolve the alias'.

<?php
 
echo system("/PATH/tnsping ".$ORACLE_SID." 2>&1")."<br />";
  echo
'TNS_ADMIN='.getenv('TNS_ADMIN');
?>

ISSUE:
  For some reason PHP tries the HOSTNAME adapter first, and if the database name resolves in DNS, it will try connecting using the database name as the hostname with no SID or SERVICE_NAME defined. All other Oracle clients I have used will not try the HOSTNAME adapter unless it is listed in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH.
  I have heard that LDAP look up does not work with older instantclients.
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