Dominio de Internet: TCP, UDP, SSL, y TLS

PHP 4, PHP 5. ssl:// y tls:// a partir de PHP 4.3.0, sslv2:// y sslv3:// a partir de PHP 5.0.2

Nota: Si no se especifica un transporte, se asumirá tcp://

  • 127.0.0.1
  • fe80::1
  • www.example.com
  • tcp://127.0.0.1
  • tcp://fe80::1
  • tcp://www.example.com
  • udp://www.example.com
  • ssl://www.example.com
  • sslv2://www.example.com
  • sslv3://www.example.com
  • tls://www.example.com

Los sockets del Dominio de Internet esperan un número de puerto junto con una dirección de destino. En el caso de fsockopen(), éste es especificado en un segundo parámetro y por lo tanto no tiene impacto sobre el formato de la URL de transporte. Sin embargo, en el caso de stream_socket_client() y funciones relacionadas, así como ocurre con URLs tradicionales, el número de puerto se especifica como un sufijo del URL de transporte delimitado con el signo dos puntos.

  • tcp://127.0.0.1:80
  • tcp://[fe80::1]:80
  • tcp://www.example.com:80

Nota: Direcciones IPv6 numéricas con números de puerto
En el segundo ejemplo anterior, mientras que los ejemplos IPv4 y con nombre de dominio fueron modificados solo ligeramente con la adición de sus dos puntos y número de puerto, la dirección IPv6 es rodeada por corchetes cuadrados: [fe80::1]. Esto es para poder distinguir entre los dos puntos usados en una dirección IPv6 y aquellos usados para delimitar el número de puerto.

Los transportes ssl:// y tls:// (disponibles únicamente cuando se compila el soporte para openssl con PHP) son extensiones del transporte tcp:// el cual incluye encripción SSL. A partir de PHP 4.3.0 el soporte OpenSSL debe ser compilado estáticamente con PHP, a partir de PHP 5.0.0 puede ser compilado como módulo o estáticamente.

ssl:// intentará negociar una conexión SSL V2 o SSL V3 dependiendo de las capacidades y preferencias del host remoto. sslv2:// y sslv3:// seleccionarán el protocolo SSL V2 o SSL V3 explícitamente.

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User Contributed Notes 4 notes

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2
christian at lantian dot eu
10 months ago
@pablo dot livardo  :  I think that the problem you found is caused by the difference between the client/server encryption methods used.

The 465 port is used for SMTPS, and the server starts the encryption immediately it receives your connection. So, your code will work.

The 587 port is used for Submission (MSA or Mail Submission Agent) which works like the port 25. The server accepts your connection and doesn't activate the encryption. If you want an encrypted connection on the port 587, you must connect on it without encryption, you must start to dialog with the server (with EHLO) and after that you must ask the server to start the encrypted connection using the STARTTLS command. The server starts the encryption and now you can start as well the encryption on your client.

So, in few words, you can not use :

<?php $fp = fsockopen("tls://mail.example.com", 587, $errno, $errstr);  ?> 

but you can use:

<?php $fp = stream_socket_client("mail.example.com:587", $errno, $errstr); ?> 

and after you send the STARTTLS command, you can enable the crypto:

<?php stream_socket_enable_crypto($fp, true, STREAM_CRYPTO_METHOD_SSLv23_CLIENT); ?>

P.S. My previous note on this page was totally wrong, so I ask the php.net admin to remove it.

:)
up
2
stefan at example dot com
3 years ago
Actually, PHP is very able to start with an unencrypted connection and then switch to an encrypted one - refer to http://php.net/stream_socket_enable_crypto .
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1
pablo dot livardo at gmail dot com
4 years ago
I've been having a problem with a TLS connection.

<?php
$fp
= fsockopen("tls://mail.example.com", 587, $errno, $errstr);
?>

Which gives me an error of:

SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:1408F10B:SSL routines:SSL3_GET_RECORD:wrong version number

I believe this is caused by PHP not being able to start with an unencrypted connection and then switch to encryption even though the functionality is built into OpenSSL.

For Google Mail users you can avoid this by using port 465 instead of 587.
up
0
christian at lantian dot eu
10 months ago
@pablo dot livardo  :  I think that the problem you found is caused by the difference between the client/server encryption methods used.

You tried to access the port 587 using TLS encryption, but the server uses the SSLv3 encryption on this port.

You can communicate with the Google server on port 465 because on this port the communication is encrypted using TLS and your client is configured to recognize the TLS.

So, if you want to connect on the Google server over the port 587, you simply must write:

<?php
$fp
= fsockopen("ssl://mail.example.com", 587, $errno, $errstr);
?>

instead of:

<?php
$fp
= fsockopen("tls://mail.example.com", 587, $errno, $errstr);
?>

:)
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