PHP 7.1.0 Released

utf8_encode

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

utf8_encodeCodifica una stringa da ISO-8859-1 a UTF-8

Descrizione

string utf8_encode ( string $data )

Questa funzione converte la stringa data al formato UTF-8, e restituisce la versione codificata. UTF-8 è il meccanismo standard utilizzato da Unicode per la codifica dei valori wide character in un flusso di byte. La codifica UTF-8 è trasparente ai caratteri ASCII, è auto-sincronizzata (per un programma è possibile determinare dove iniziano i caratteri in un flusso di dati) e può essere usata nelle normali funzioni di confronto di stringhe per i sort e simili. Il PHP codifica i caratteri UTF-8 fino a quattro byte come segue:

Codifica UTF-8
byte bit rappresentazione
1 7 0bbbbbbb
2 11 110bbbbb 10bbbbbb
3 16 1110bbbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb
4 21 11110bbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb
Ciascuna b rappresenta un bit che può essere utilizzato per memorizzare le informazioni del carattere.

Elenco dei parametri

data

Una stringa ISO-8859-1.

Valori restituiti

Restituisce la traduzione UTF-8 di data.

Vedere anche:

  • utf8_decode() - Converte una stringa con caratteri ISO-8859-1 codificati con UTF-8 in formato ISO-8859-1 singolo byte

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 45 notes

up
91
deceze at gmail dot com
5 years ago
Please note that utf8_encode only converts a string encoded in ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8. A more appropriate name for it would be "iso88591_to_utf8". If your text is not encoded in  ISO-8859-1, you do not need this function. If your text is already in UTF-8, you do not need this function. In fact, applying this function to text that is not encoded in ISO-8859-1 will most likely simply garble that text.

If you need to convert text from any encoding to any other encoding, look at iconv() instead.
up
19
Oscar Broman
4 years ago
Walk through nested arrays/objects and utf8 encode all strings.

<?php
// Usage
class Foo {
    public
$somevar = 'whoop whoop';
}

$structure = array(
   
'object' => (object) array(
       
'entry' => 'hello wörld',
       
'another_array' => array(
           
'string',
           
1234,
           
'another string'
       
)
    ),
   
'string' => 'foo',
   
'foo_object' => new Foo
);

utf8_encode_deep($structure);

// $structure is now utf8 encoded
print_r($structure);

// The function
function utf8_encode_deep(&$input) {
    if (
is_string($input)) {
       
$input = utf8_encode($input);
    } else if (
is_array($input)) {
        foreach (
$input as &$value) {
           
utf8_encode_deep($value);
        }

        unset(
$value);
    } else if (
is_object($input)) {
       
$vars = array_keys(get_object_vars($input));

        foreach (
$vars as $var) {
           
utf8_encode_deep($input->$var);
        }
    }
}
?>
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5
a dot rueedlinger at gmail dot com
3 years ago
If you need a function which converts a string array into a utf8 encoded string array then this function might be useful for you:

<?php
function utf8_string_array_encode(&$array){
   
$func = function(&$value,&$key){
        if(
is_string($value)){
           
$value = utf8_encode($value);
        }
        if(
is_string($key)){
           
$key = utf8_encode($key);
        }
        if(
is_array($value)){
           
utf8_string_array_encode($value);
        }
    };
   
array_walk($array,$func);
    return
$array;
}
?>
up
6
bisqwit at iki dot fi
11 years ago
For reference, it may be insightful to point out that:
  utf8_encode($s)
is actually identical to:
  recode_string('latin1..utf8', $s)
and:
  iconv('iso-8859-1', 'utf-8', $s)
That is, utf8_encode is a specialized case of character set conversions.

If your string to be converted to utf-8 is something other than iso-8859-1 (such as iso-8859-2 (Polish/Croatian)), you should use recode_string() or iconv() instead rather than trying to devise complex str_replace statements.
up
3
suttichai at ceforce dot com
11 years ago
This function I use convert Thai font (iso-8859-11) to UTF-8. For my case, It work properly. Please try to use this function if you have a problem to convert charset iso-8859-11 to UTF-8.

function iso8859_11toUTF8($string) {
 
     if ( ! ereg("[\241-\377]", $string) )
         return $string;

     $iso8859_11 = array(
"\xa1" => "\xe0\xb8\x81",
"\xa2" => "\xe0\xb8\x82",
"\xa3" => "\xe0\xb8\x83",
"\xa4" => "\xe0\xb8\x84",
"\xa5" => "\xe0\xb8\x85",
"\xa6" => "\xe0\xb8\x86",
"\xa7" => "\xe0\xb8\x87",
"\xa8" => "\xe0\xb8\x88",
"\xa9" => "\xe0\xb8\x89",
"\xaa" => "\xe0\xb8\x8a",
"\xab" => "\xe0\xb8\x8b",
"\xac" => "\xe0\xb8\x8c",
"\xad" => "\xe0\xb8\x8d",
"\xae" => "\xe0\xb8\x8e",
"\xaf" => "\xe0\xb8\x8f",
"\xb0" => "\xe0\xb8\x90",
"\xb1" => "\xe0\xb8\x91",
"\xb2" => "\xe0\xb8\x92",
"\xb3" => "\xe0\xb8\x93",
"\xb4" => "\xe0\xb8\x94",
"\xb5" => "\xe0\xb8\x95",
"\xb6" => "\xe0\xb8\x96",
"\xb7" => "\xe0\xb8\x97",
"\xb8" => "\xe0\xb8\x98",
"\xb9" => "\xe0\xb8\x99",
"\xba" => "\xe0\xb8\x9a",
"\xbb" => "\xe0\xb8\x9b",
"\xbc" => "\xe0\xb8\x9c",
"\xbd" => "\xe0\xb8\x9d",
"\xbe" => "\xe0\xb8\x9e",
"\xbf" => "\xe0\xb8\x9f",
"\xc0" => "\xe0\xb8\xa0",
"\xc1" => "\xe0\xb8\xa1",
"\xc2" => "\xe0\xb8\xa2",
"\xc3" => "\xe0\xb8\xa3",
"\xc4" => "\xe0\xb8\xa4",
"\xc5" => "\xe0\xb8\xa5",
"\xc6" => "\xe0\xb8\xa6",
"\xc7" => "\xe0\xb8\xa7",
"\xc8" => "\xe0\xb8\xa8",
"\xc9" => "\xe0\xb8\xa9",
"\xca" => "\xe0\xb8\xaa",
"\xcb" => "\xe0\xb8\xab",
"\xcc" => "\xe0\xb8\xac",
"\xcd" => "\xe0\xb8\xad",
"\xce" => "\xe0\xb8\xae",
"\xcf" => "\xe0\xb8\xaf",
"\xd0" => "\xe0\xb8\xb0",
"\xd1" => "\xe0\xb8\xb1",
"\xd2" => "\xe0\xb8\xb2",
"\xd3" => "\xe0\xb8\xb3",
"\xd4" => "\xe0\xb8\xb4",
"\xd5" => "\xe0\xb8\xb5",
"\xd6" => "\xe0\xb8\xb6",
"\xd7" => "\xe0\xb8\xb7",
"\xd8" => "\xe0\xb8\xb8",
"\xd9" => "\xe0\xb8\xb9",
"\xda" => "\xe0\xb8\xba",
"\xdf" => "\xe0\xb8\xbf",
"\xe0" => "\xe0\xb9\x80",
"\xe1" => "\xe0\xb9\x81",
"\xe2" => "\xe0\xb9\x82",
"\xe3" => "\xe0\xb9\x83",
"\xe4" => "\xe0\xb9\x84",
"\xe5" => "\xe0\xb9\x85",
"\xe6" => "\xe0\xb9\x86",
"\xe7" => "\xe0\xb9\x87",
"\xe8" => "\xe0\xb9\x88",
"\xe9" => "\xe0\xb9\x89",
"\xea" => "\xe0\xb9\x8a",
"\xeb" => "\xe0\xb9\x8b",
"\xec" => "\xe0\xb9\x8c",
"\xed" => "\xe0\xb9\x8d",
"\xee" => "\xe0\xb9\x8e",
"\xef" => "\xe0\xb9\x8f",
"\xf0" => "\xe0\xb9\x90",
"\xf1" => "\xe0\xb9\x91",
"\xf2" => "\xe0\xb9\x92",
"\xf3" => "\xe0\xb9\x93",
"\xf4" => "\xe0\xb9\x94",
"\xf5" => "\xe0\xb9\x95",
"\xf6" => "\xe0\xb9\x96",
"\xf7" => "\xe0\xb9\x97",
"\xf8" => "\xe0\xb9\x98",
"\xf9" => "\xe0\xb9\x99",
"\xfa" => "\xe0\xb9\x9a",
"\xfb" => "\xe0\xb9\x9b"
);

     $string=strtr($string,$iso8859_11);
     return $string;
}

Suttichai Mesaard-www.ceforce.com
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3
Aidan Kehoe <php-manual at parhasard dot net>
12 years ago
Here's some code that addresses the issue that Steven describes in the previous comment;

<?php

/* This structure encodes the difference between ISO-8859-1 and Windows-1252,
   as a map from the UTF-8 encoding of some ISO-8859-1 control characters to
   the UTF-8 encoding of the non-control characters that Windows-1252 places
   at the equivalent code points. */

$cp1252_map = array(
   
"\xc2\x80" => "\xe2\x82\xac", /* EURO SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x82" => "\xe2\x80\x9a", /* SINGLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x83" => "\xc6\x92",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH HOOK */
   
"\xc2\x84" => "\xe2\x80\x9e", /* DOUBLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x85" => "\xe2\x80\xa6", /* HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS */
   
"\xc2\x86" => "\xe2\x80\xa0", /* DAGGER */
   
"\xc2\x87" => "\xe2\x80\xa1", /* DOUBLE DAGGER */
   
"\xc2\x88" => "\xcb\x86",     /* MODIFIER LETTER CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT */
   
"\xc2\x89" => "\xe2\x80\xb0", /* PER MILLE SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x8a" => "\xc5\xa0",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x8b" => "\xe2\x80\xb9", /* SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION */
   
"\xc2\x8c" => "\xc5\x92",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE */
   
"\xc2\x8e" => "\xc5\xbd",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x91" => "\xe2\x80\x98", /* LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x92" => "\xe2\x80\x99", /* RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x93" => "\xe2\x80\x9c", /* LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x94" => "\xe2\x80\x9d", /* RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x95" => "\xe2\x80\xa2", /* BULLET */
   
"\xc2\x96" => "\xe2\x80\x93", /* EN DASH */
   
"\xc2\x97" => "\xe2\x80\x94", /* EM DASH */

   
"\xc2\x98" => "\xcb\x9c",     /* SMALL TILDE */
   
"\xc2\x99" => "\xe2\x84\xa2", /* TRADE MARK SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x9a" => "\xc5\xa1",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x9b" => "\xe2\x80\xba", /* SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION*/
   
"\xc2\x9c" => "\xc5\x93",     /* LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE */
   
"\xc2\x9e" => "\xc5\xbe",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x9f" => "\xc5\xb8"      /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS*/
);

function
cp1252_to_utf8($str) {
        global
$cp1252_map;
        return 
strtr(utf8_encode($str), $cp1252_map);
}

?>
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2
rogeriogirodo at gmail dot com
7 years ago
This function may be useful do encode array keys and values [and checks first to see if it's already in UTF format]:

<?php
public static function to_utf8($in)
{
        if (
is_array($in)) {
            foreach (
$in as $key => $value) {
               
$out[to_utf8($key)] = to_utf8($value);
            }
        } elseif(
is_string($in)) {
            if(
mb_detect_encoding($in) != "UTF-8")
                return
utf8_encode($in);
            else
                return
$in;
        } else {
            return
$in;
        }
        return
$out;
}
?>

Hope this may help.

[NOTE BY danbrown AT php DOT net: Original function written by (cmyk777 AT gmail DOT com) on 28-JAN-09.]
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3
rocketman
10 years ago
If you are looking for a function to replace special characters with the hex-utf-8 value (e.g. für Webservice-Security/WSS4J compliancy) you might use this:

$textstart = "Größe";
$utf8 ='';
$max = strlen($txt);

for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) {

if ($txt{i} == "&"){
$neu = "&x26;";
}
elseif ((ord($txt{$i}) < 32) or (ord($txt{$i}) > 127)){
$neu = urlencode(utf8_encode($txt{$i}));
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)\%(..)\%(..)#','&#x\1;&#x\2;&#x\3;',$neu);
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)\%(..)#','&#x\1;&#x\2;',$neu);
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)#','&#x\1;',$neu);
}
else {
$neu = $txt{$i};
}
       
$utf8 .= $neu;
} // for $i

$textnew = $utf8;

In this example $textnew will be "Gr&#xC3;&#xB6;&#xC3;&#x9F;e"
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2
emze at donazga dot net
9 years ago
/*
Every function seen so far is incomplete or resource consumpting. Here are two -- integer 2 utf sequence (i3u) and utf sequence to integer (u3i). Below is a code snippet that checks well behavior at the range boundaries.

Someday they might be hardcoded into PHP...
*/

function i3u($i) { // returns UCS-16 or UCS-32 to UTF-8 from an integer
  $i=(int)$i; // integer?
  if ($i<0) return false; // positive?
  if ($i<=0x7f) return chr($i); // range 0
  if (($i & 0x7fffffff) <> $i) return '?'; // 31 bit?
  if ($i<=0x7ff) return chr(0xc0 | ($i >> 6)) . chr(0x80 | ($i & 0x3f));
  if ($i<=0xffff) return chr(0xe0 | ($i >> 12)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  if ($i<=0x1fffff) return chr(0xf0 | ($i >> 18)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  if ($i<=0x3ffffff) return chr(0xf8 | ($i >> 24)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 18) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  return chr(0xfc | ($i >> 30)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 24) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 18) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
}

function u3i($s,$strict=1) { // returns integer on valid UTF-8 seq, NULL on empty, else FALSE
  // NOT strict: takes only DATA bits, present or not; strict: length and bits checking
  if ($s=='') return NULL;
  $l=strlen($s); $o=ord($s{0});
  if ($o <= 0x7f && $l==1) return $o;
  if ($l>6 && $strict) return false;
  if ($strict) for ($i=1;$i<$l;$i++) if (ord($s{$i}) > 0xbf || ord($s{$i})< 0x80) return false;
  if ($o < 0xc2) return false; // no-go even if strict=0
  if ($o <= 0xdf && ($l=2 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x1f) << 6 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xef && ($l=3 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x0f) << 12 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 6
     |  (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xf7 && ($l=4 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x07) << 18 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 12
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xfb && ($l=5 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x03) << 24 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 18
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 12 | (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{4}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xfd && ($l=6 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x01) << 30 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 24
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 18 | (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f) << 12
     | (ord($s{4}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{5}) & 0x3f));
  return false;
}

// boundary behavior checking
$do=array(0x7f,0x7ff,0xffff,0x1fffff,0x3ffffff,0x7fffffff);
foreach ($do as $ii) for ($i=$ii;$i<=$ii+1; $i++) {
  $o=i3u($i);
  for ($j=0;$j<strlen($o);$j++) print "O[$j]=" . sprintf('%08b',ord($o{$j})) . ", ";
  print "c=$i, o=[$o].\n";
  print "Back: [$o] => [" . u3i($o) . "]\n";
}
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2
Anonymous
11 years ago
// Reads a file story.txt ascii (as typed on keyboard)
// converts it to Georgian character using utf8 encoding
// if I am correct(?) just as it should be when typed on Georgian computer
// it outputs it as an html file
//
// http://www.comweb.nl/keys_to_georgian.html
// http://www.comweb.nl/keys_to_georgian.php
// http://www.comweb.nl/story.txt

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>keys to unicode code</TITLE>

// this meta tag is needed
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" >

// note the sylfean font seems to be standard installed on Windows XP
// It supports Georgian

<style TYPE="text/css">
<!--
body {font-family:sylfaen; }
-->
</style>
</HEAD>

<BODY>

<?
$eng=array(97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,
112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,87,82,84,83,
67,74,90);
$geo=array(4304,4305,4330,4307,4308,4324,4306,4336,4312,4335,4313,
4314,4315,4316,4317,4318,4325,4320,4321,4322,4323,4309,
4332,4334,4327,4310,4333,4326,4311,4328,4329,4319,4331,
91,93,59,39,44,46,96);

$fc=file("story.txt");
foreach($fc as $line)
{
   $spacestart=1;
   for ($i=0; $i<strlen($line); $i+=1)
   {
      $character=ord(substr($line,$i,1));
      $found=0;
      for ($k=0; $k<count($eng); $k+=1)
      {
         if ($eng[$k]==$character)
         {
             print code2utf( $geo[$k] );
             $found=1;
         }
      }
      if ($found==0)
      {
         if ($character==126 || $character==32 || $character==10 || $character==9)
         {
            if ($character==9)  { print '&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;'; }
            if ($character==10) { print "<BR>\n"; }
            if ($character==32)
            {
               if ($spacestart==1) {print '&nbsp;'; } else { print " "; }
            }
            if ($character==126){ print "~";      }
         } else
         {
            print substr($line,$i,1);
         }
      }
      if ($character!=32) { $spacestart=0; }
   }
}

/**
* Function coverts number of utf char into that character.
* Function taken from: http://sk2.php.net/manual/en/function.utf8-encode.php#49336
*
* @param int $num
* @return utf8char
*/
function code2utf($num)
{
   if($num<128)return chr($num);
   if($num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
   if($num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
   if($num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
   return '';
}
?>

</BODY>
</HTML>
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1
sadikkeskin at hotmail dot com
10 years ago
i wrote a function to convert encoding utf8 to iso-8859-9. This function is very useful if you want to use this for ajax.
you can apply same way for other languages.
<?
function str_encode ($string,$to="iso-8859-9",$from="utf8") {
    if($to=="iso-8859-9" && $from=="utf8"){
        $str_array = array(
       chr(196).chr(177) => chr(253),
       chr(196).chr(176) => chr(221),
       chr(195).chr(182) => chr(246),
       chr(195).chr(150) => chr(214),
       chr(195).chr(167) => chr(231),
       chr(195).chr(135) => chr(199),
       chr(197).chr(159) => chr(254),
       chr(197).chr(158) => chr(222),
       chr(196).chr(159) => chr(240),
       chr(196).chr(158) => chr(208),
       chr(195).chr(188) => chr(252),
       chr(195).chr(156) => chr(220)
       );
       return str_replace(array_keys($str_array), array_values($str_array), $string);
   
    }   
    return $string;
}
?>
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2
bastianschwarz t live punkt de
5 years ago
My version for converting ISO array keys to utf8:

<?php
function convertArrayKeysToUtf8(array $array) {
   
$convertedArray = array();
    foreach(
$array as $key => $value) {
      if(!
mb_check_encoding($key, 'UTF-8')) $key = utf8_encode($key);
      if(
is_array($value)) $value = $this->convertArrayKeysToUtf8($value);

     
$convertedArray[$key] = $value;
    }
    return
$convertedArray;
  }
?>
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2
www.tricinty.com
8 years ago
<?php
   
/**
    * Encodes an ISO-8859-1 mixed variable to UTF-8 (PHP 4, PHP 5 compat)
    * @param    mixed    $input An array, associative or simple
    * @param    boolean  $encode_keys optional
    * @return    mixed     ( utf-8 encoded $input)
    */

   
function utf8_encode_mix($input, $encode_keys=false)
    {
        if(
is_array($input))
        {
           
$result = array();
            foreach(
$input as $k => $v)
            {               
               
$key = ($encode_keys)? utf8_encode($k) : $k;
               
$result[$key] = utf8_encode_mix( $v, $encode_keys);
            }
        }
        else
        {
           
$result = utf8_encode($input);
        }

        return
$result;
    }
?>
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2
powtac 4t gmx d0t de
5 years ago
I tried a lot of things, but this seems to be the final fail save method to convert any string to proper UTF-8.

<?php
function _convert($content) {
    if(!
mb_check_encoding($content, 'UTF-8')
        OR !(
$content === mb_convert_encoding(mb_convert_encoding($content, 'UTF-32', 'UTF-8' ), 'UTF-8', 'UTF-32'))) {

       
$content = mb_convert_encoding($content, 'UTF-8');

        if (
mb_check_encoding($content, 'UTF-8')) {
           
// log('Converted to UTF-8');
       
} else {
           
// log('Could not converted to UTF-8');
       
}
    }
    return
$content;
}
?>
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1
Yumok
6 years ago
Avoiding use of preg_match to detect if utf8_encode is needed:

<?php
                $string
= $string_input; // avoid being destructive

               
$string = preg_replace("#[\x09\x0A\x0D\x20-\x7E]#"        ,"",$string);         // ASCII
               
$string = preg_replace("#[\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF]#"            ,"",$string);             // non-overlong 2-byte
               
$string = preg_replace("#\xE0[\xA0-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]#"    ,"",$string);     // excluding overlongs
               
$string = preg_replace("#[\xE1-\xEC\xEE\xEF][\x80-\xBF]{2}#","",$string);     // straight 3-byte
               
$string = preg_replace("#\xED[\x80-\x9F][\x80-\xBF]#"    ,"",$string);     // excluding surrogates
               
$string = preg_replace("#\xF0[\x90-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]{2}#","",$string);     // planes 1-3
               
$string = preg_replace("#[\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF]{3}#"    ,"",$string);     //  planes 4-15
               
$string = preg_replace("#\xF4[\x80-\x8F][\x80-\xBF]{2}#","",$string);     // plane 16

               
$rc = ($string == ""?true:false);
?>
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1
aktionimskript at gmx dot net
11 years ago
if you want to put variables as parameter in a flashfile, i prefer using to convert the string with utf8_encode() [or preg_replace, or iconv] and after this i encode it with urlencode();

<?php
     $yourstring
="yourstring";
    
$str_utf8=utf8_encode($yourstring);
    
$str_encoded=urlencode($str_utf8);
     echo
"<script language='javascript'>";
     echo
"parameterForFlash='".$str_encoded."';";
     echo
"</script>";
?>

now you can use the variable (parameterForFlash) in your javascript (plugindetection), that writes the flash object/embed.
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1
James Cundle
10 years ago
I had some difficulty finding a way to easily write UTF-8 files with the byte order mark included. This is the simple solution I have come up with:

<?php
function writeUTF8File($filename,$content) {
       
$dhandle=fopen($filename,"w");
       
# Now UTF-8 - Add byte order mark
       
fwrite($dhandle, pack("CCC",0xef,0xbb,0xbf));
       
fwrite($dhandle,$content);
       
fclose($dhandle);
}
?>

When you read the file back in using fopen, the BOM will also be there. To remove it, I also wrote the following function:

<?php
function removeBOM($str=""){
        if(
substr($str, 0,3) == pack("CCC",0xef,0xbb,0xbf)) {
               
$str=substr($str, 3);
        }
        return
$str;
}
?>
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0
Pini
1 year ago
My version of utf8_encode_deep,
In case you need one that returns a value without changing the original.

        /**
        * Convert Anything To UTF-8
        * @param mixed $var The variable you want to convert.
        * @param boolean $deep Deep convertion? (*Default: TRUE).
        * @return mixed
        */
        function anything_to_utf8($var,$deep=TRUE){
            if(is_array($var)){
                foreach($var as $key => $value){
                    if($deep){
                        $var[$key] = anything_to_utf8($value,$deep);
                    }elseif(!is_array($value) && !is_object($value) && !mb_detect_encoding($value,'utf-8',true)){
                         $var[$key] = utf8_encode($var);
                    }
                }
                return $var;
            }elseif(is_object($var)){
                foreach($var as $key => $value){
                    if($deep){
                        $var->$key = anything_to_utf8($value,$deep);
                    }elseif(!is_array($value) && !is_object($value) && !mb_detect_encoding($value,'utf-8',true)){
                         $var->$key = utf8_encode($var);
                    }
                }
                return $var;
            }else{
                return (!mb_detect_encoding($var,'utf-8',true))?utf8_encode($var):$var;
            }
        }
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0
mrezair at azarbod dot com
7 years ago
I found this little function very useful in fixing strings that are not in utf-8 but need be converted

<?php
// Fixes the encoding to uf8
function fixEncoding($in_str)
{
 
$cur_encoding = mb_detect_encoding($in_str) ;
  if(
$cur_encoding == "UTF-8" && mb_check_encoding($in_str,"UTF-8"))
    return
$in_str;
  else
    return
utf8_encode($in_str);
}
// fixEncoding
?>
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1
Mark AT modernbill DOT com
12 years ago
If you haven't guessed already: If the UTF-8 character has no representation in the ISO-8859-1 codepage, a ? will be returned. You might want to wrap a function around this to make sure you aren't saving a bunch of ???? into your database.
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-1
www.qaiser.net
8 years ago
that isUTF8 function is a killer...

wouldn't something like

if ( preg_match( "~(\x00[\x80-\xff]|[\x00-\x07][\x00-\xff]~", $string ) ) { /* is utf */ };

be a lot more efficient? it doesn't take into account all the ranges, but it has to be a better method and a simple start since it'll quit on the first successful match. think of encoding and decoding a 1mb string--not good. i'm having to work with +20 meg xml files.
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1
bmorel at ssi dot fr
12 years ago
Here is a simple function that can help, if you want to know if a string could be UTF-8 or not :

<?php
function seems_utf8($Str) {
for (
$i=0; $i<strlen($Str); $i++) {
  if (
ord($Str[$i]) < 0x80) $n=0; # 0bbbbbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xE0) == 0xC0) $n=1; # 110bbbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xF0) == 0xE0) $n=2; # 1110bbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xF0) == 0xF0) $n=3; # 1111bbbb
 
else return false; # Does not match any model
 
for ($j=0; $j<$n; $j++) { # n octets that match 10bbbbbb follow ?
  
if ((++$i == strlen($Str)) || ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xC0) != 0x80)) return false;
  }
}
return
true;
}
?>
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0
mailing at jcn50 dot com
10 years ago
I recommend using this alternative for every language:

$new=mb_convert_encoding($s,"UTF-8","auto");

Don't forget to set all your pages to "utf-8" encoding, otherwise just use HTML entities.

jcn50.
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0
Janci
11 years ago
I was searching for a function similar to Javascript's unescape(). In most cases it is OK to use url_decode() function but not if you've got UTF characters in the strings. They are converted into %uXXXX entities that url_decode() cannot handle.
I googled the net and found a function which actualy converts these entities into HTML entities (&#xxx;) that your browser can show correctly. If you're OK with that, the function can be found here: http://pure-essence.net/stuff/code/utf8RawUrlDecode.phps

But it was not OK with me because I needed a string in my charset to make some comparations and other stuff. So I have modified the above function and in conjuction with code2utf() function mentioned in some other note here, I have managed to achieve my goal:

<?php
/**
* Function converts an Javascript escaped string back into a string with specified charset (default is UTF-8).
* Modified function from http://pure-essence.net/stuff/code/utf8RawUrlDecode.phps
*
* @param string $source escaped with Javascript's escape() function
* @param string $iconv_to destination character set will be used as second paramether in the iconv function. Default is UTF-8.
* @return string
*/
function unescape($source, $iconv_to = 'UTF-8') {
   
$decodedStr = '';
   
$pos = 0;
   
$len = strlen ($source);
    while (
$pos < $len) {
       
$charAt = substr ($source, $pos, 1);
        if (
$charAt == '%') {
           
$pos++;
           
$charAt = substr ($source, $pos, 1);
            if (
$charAt == 'u') {
               
// we got a unicode character
               
$pos++;
               
$unicodeHexVal = substr ($source, $pos, 4);
               
$unicode = hexdec ($unicodeHexVal);
               
$decodedStr .= code2utf($unicode);
               
$pos += 4;
            }
            else {
               
// we have an escaped ascii character
               
$hexVal = substr ($source, $pos, 2);
               
$decodedStr .= chr (hexdec ($hexVal));
               
$pos += 2;
            }
        }
        else {
           
$decodedStr .= $charAt;
           
$pos++;
        }
    }

    if (
$iconv_to != "UTF-8") {
       
$decodedStr = iconv("UTF-8", $iconv_to, $decodedStr);
    }
   
    return
$decodedStr;
}

/**
* Function coverts number of utf char into that character.
* Function taken from: http://sk2.php.net/manual/en/function.utf8-encode.php#49336
*
* @param int $num
* @return utf8char
*/
function code2utf($num){
    if(
$num<128)return chr($num);
    if(
$num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
    if(
$num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
    if(
$num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
    return
'';
}
?>
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1
Karen
13 years ago
Re the previous post about converting GB2312 code to Unicode code which displayed the following function:

<?
// Program by sadly (www.phpx.com)

function gb2unicode($gb)
{
   if(!trim($gb))
    return $gb;
   $filename="gb2312.txt";
   $tmp=file($filename);
   $codetable=array();
   while(list($key,$value)=each($tmp))
    $codetable[hexdec(substr($value,0,6))]=substr($value,9,4);
   $utf="";
   while($gb)
    {
      if (ord(substr($gb,0,1))>127)
     {
        $this=substr($gb,0,2);
        $gb=substr($gb,2,strlen($gb));
        $utf.="&#x".$codetable[hexdec(bin2hex($this))-0x8080].";";
      }
     else
     {
      $gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
      $utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
     }
     }
  return $utf;
}
?>

I found that a small change was needed in the code to properly handle latin characters embedded in the middle of gb2312 text, as when the text includes a URL or email address. Just reverse the two lines in the part of the statement above that handles ord vals !>127.

Change:

$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);

to:

$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));

In the original function, the first latin chacter was dropped and it was not converting the first non-latin character after the latin text (everything was shifted one character too far to the right). Reversing those two lines makes it work correctly in every example I have tried.

Also, the source of the gb2312.txt file needed for this to work has changed. You can find it a couple places:

http://tcl.apache.org/sources/tcl/tools/encoding/gb2312.txt
ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/OBSOLETE/EASTASIA/GB/GB2312.TXT
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1
artem at w510 dot tm dot odessa dot ua
13 years ago
Loading variables in flash

you can lost a lot of hours if your charset is not iso-88951 and you cant' see your characters in flash

you must use iconv instead with your codepage
(for example windows-1251 for ukrainian, russian)

$fw = fopen("flash_input.txt", "w");
if( $fw )
{
    $utf = iconv("windows-1251","UTF-8",$variable_value);
    $out = 'variable_name='.$utf;
    fputs($fw, $out);
    fclose($fw);
}

and no urlecode is needed if you save data in file!
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-1
penda ekoka
9 years ago
creating utf-8 xml files:
this is something that has wasted a lot of my time, I hope this will spare you the headaches:

my method consists of creating an xml template that will look like this (this is probably optional, I'm sure you can use good ol' print or echo statements):

xml_tpl.php
<?php
header
("Content-Type: text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1");
print
"<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" ?>\n";
$names=array('jack','bob','vanessa','catherine','valerie');
?>
<parent>
<?php foreach($names as $name) {?>
    <child name="<?php print $name?>" />
<?php } ?>
</parent>
?>

from a function or a method I include the previous template and trap the outputted content in an output buffer. The buffured content is then inserted into a file:

<?php
function create_xml(){
   
ob_start();
    include
"xml_php.php";
   
$trapped_content=ob_get_contents();
   
ob_end_clean();
   
$file_path= "./somefile.xml";
   
$file_handle=fopen($somefile,'w');
   
fwrite($file_handle,utf8_encode($trapped_content));
}

?>

Some side notes:
- note that the utf8_encode function goes inside the fwrite() function.
- when troubleshooting, make sure to transfer text file (xml included) and scripts in ascii mode when using ftp. For some unknown reason my ftp client did not have xml set as an ascii transfer candidate and was automatically tranfering them in binary. That little "feature" ended up costing me hours of frustration, as the encoding information would just "vanish" between transfer and I kept scratching my head as to why manually created utf8 files were not behaving as they should.
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0
JF Sebastian
11 years ago
The following Perl regular expression tests if a string is well-formed Unicode UTF-8 (Broken up after each | since long lines are not permitted here. Please join as a single line, no spaces, before use.):

^([\x00-\x7f]|
[\xc2-\xdf][\x80-\xbf]|
\xe0[\xa0-\xbf][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xe1-\xec][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
\xed[\x80-\x9f][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xee-\xef][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
f0[\x90-\xbf][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
[\xf1-\xf3][\x80-\xbf]{3}|
\xf4[\x80-\x8f][\x80-\xbf]{2})*$

NOTE: This strictly follows the Unicode standard 4.0, as described in chapter 3.9, table 3-6, "Well-formed UTF-8 byte sequences" ( http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch03.pdf#G31703 ).

ISO-10646, a super-set of Unicode, uses UTF-8 (there called "UCS", see http://www.unicode.org/faq/utf_bom.html#1 ) in a relaxed variant that supports a 31-bit space encoded into up to six bytes instead of Unicode's 21 bits in up to four bytes. To check for ISO-10646 UTF-8, use the following Perl regular expression (again, broken up, see above):

^([\x00-\x7f]|
[\xc0-\xdf][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xe0-\xef][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
[\xf0-\xf7][\x80-\xbf]{3}|
[\xf8-\xfb][\x80-\xbf]{4}|
[\xfc-\xfd][\x80-\xbf]{5})*$

The following function may be used with above expressions for a quick UTF-8 test, e.g. to distinguish ISO-8859-1-data from UTF-8-data if submitted from a <form accept-charset="utf-8,iso-8859-1" method=..>.

function is_utf8($string) {
   return (preg_match('/[insert regular expression here]/', $string) === 1);
}
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0
http://iubito.free.fr
11 years ago
Here's a function I made to know if one string or textfile is already encoded in UTF8 :

<?php
/**
* Returns <kbd>true</kbd> if the string or array of string is encoded in UTF8.
*
* Example of use. If you want to know if a file is saved in UTF8 format :
* <code> $array = file('one file.txt');
* $isUTF8 = isUTF8($array);
* if (!$isUTF8) --> we need to apply utf8_encode() to be in UTF8
* else --> we are in UTF8 :)
* </code>
* @param mixed A string, or an array from a file() function.
* @return boolean
*/
function isUTF8($string)
{
    if (
is_array($string))
    {
       
$enc = implode('', $string);
        return @!((
ord($enc[0]) != 239) && (ord($enc[1]) != 187) && (ord($enc[2]) != 191));
    }
    else
    {
        return (
utf8_encode(utf8_decode($string)) == $string);
    }   
}
?>
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0
Denis G.
11 years ago
Sniplet to convert ASCII coded text to UTF-8:

$text= preg_replace ('/([\x80-\xff])/se', "pack (\"C*\", (ord ($1) >> 6) | 0xc0, (ord ($1) & 0x3f) | 0x80)", $text);
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0
anonymous at anonymous dot com
11 years ago
A few bugs in your example code:

function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
  return '';
}
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schofei at yahoo dot de
11 years ago
regarding the above code2utf function...

> romans at void dot lv
> 02-Oct-2002 09:59
> Here is optimized function which converts
> binary UTF symbol code into unicoded string....

Thanks for providing your nice conversion code, however due to some missing parenthesis 4-byte utf-8 chars are not converted properly.

Here is a corrected version of the code2utf function:

function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<1024)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<32768)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
  return '';
}

regards
Scho Fei
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0
hrpeters (at) gmx (dot) net
11 years ago
// Validate Unicode UTF-8 Version 4
// This function takes as reference the table 3.6 found at http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch03.pdf
// It also flags overlong bytes as error

function is_validUTF8($str)
{
    // values of -1 represent disalloweded values for the first bytes in current UTF-8
    static $trailing_bytes = array (
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1, -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,
        -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1, -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,
        -1,-1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
        2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2, 3,3,3,3,3,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1
    );

    $ups = unpack('C*', $str);
    if (!($aCnt = count($ups))) return true; // Empty string *is* valid UTF-8
    for ($i = 1; $i <= $aCnt;)
    {
        if (!($tbytes = $trailing_bytes[($b1 = $ups[$i++])])) continue;
        if ($tbytes == -1) return false;
       
        $first = true;
        while ($tbytes > 0 && $i <= $aCnt)
        {
            $cbyte = $ups[$i++];
            if (($cbyte & 0xC0) != 0x80) return false;
           
            if ($first)
            {
                switch ($b1)
                {
                    case 0xE0:
                        if ($cbyte < 0xA0) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xED:
                        if ($cbyte > 0x9F) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xF0:
                        if ($cbyte < 0x90) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xF4:
                        if ($cbyte > 0x8F) return false;
                        break;
                    default:
                        break;
                }
                $first = false;
            }
            $tbytes--;
        }
        if ($tbytes) return false; // incomplete sequence at EOS
    }       
    return true;
}
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Anonymous
10 years ago
In reply to Cundle:

Note: The BOM is completely unnecessary in UTF-8. UTF-8 is interpreted the same way regardless of endianness, e.g. Λ (U+039B, GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA) is represented as the octets 0xCE, 0x9B, always in that order.

Extra note: UTF-16 and UCS-2 are different. The same letter would be encoded as 0x03 0x9B on big-endian (e.g. Motorola) architecture, but 0x9B 0x03 on little-endian (e.g Intel) architecture.

But in any case, there's nothing wrong with putting a BOM at the beginning of a UTF-8 encoded file. It is just treated as U+FEFF Zero Width No-Break Space.
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steven -at- acko -dot- net
12 years ago
Note that you should only use utf8_encode() on ISO-8859-1 data, and not on data using the Windows-1252 codepage. Microsoft's Windows-1252 codepage contains ISO-8859-1, but it includes several characters in the range 0x80-0x9F whose codepoints in Unicode do not match the byte's value (in Unicode, codepoints U+80 - U+9F are unassigned).

utf8_encode() simply assumes the bytes integer value is the codepoint number in Unicode.

E.g. in 1252, byte 0x80 is the euro sign, which is U+20AC. The same goes for curly quotes, em dashes, etc.

utf8_encode() will convert 0x80 into U+0080 (an unassigned codepoint) rather than U+20AC.

To convert 1252 to UTF-8, use iconv, recode or mbstring.
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Net Raven
12 years ago
I often need to convert multi language text sent to me for use in websites and other apps into UTF8 encoded so I can insert it into source code and databases.

I knocked up a small web page with its charset set to UTF8 then set it up so I can paste from the original doc (eg word or excel) and have the page return the UTF8 encoded version.

Of course the browser will convert the unicode to UTF8 for you as part of the submit (I use IE5 or better for this) then all you have to do in the PHP is encode the UTF8 so the browser will show it in its raw form.

Its a bit bulky but I just convert ALL character to html numbered entities (brute force and ignorance does it again.)

I've used this to encode everything from Hebrew to Japanese without problems

<?
header("Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8");
$code = (get_magic_quotes_gpc())?stripslashes($GLOBALS[code]):$GLOBALS[code];
?>
<html>
<head>
    <title>UTF8 ENCODER PAGE</title>
    <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
</head>
<body>
<form method=post action="?seed=<?=time()?>">
    Original Unicode<br />
    <textarea name="code" cols="80" rows="10"><?=$code?></textarea><br />
    Encoded UTF8<br />
    <textarea name="encd" cols="80" rows="10"><?
        for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($code); $i++) {
            echo '&#'.ord(substr($code,$i,1));
        }
    ?></textarea><br />
    <input type="submit" value="encode">
</form>
</body>
</html>
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lorro at lorro dot wigner dot bme dot hu
12 years ago
Good news is that utf8_encode (like UTF-8) passes '<', '>', '/', '\'', '"', etc., so you are free to utf8_encode complete blocks of html text that includes tags.
Bad news is that UTF-8 is stupid enough so that utf8_encode(utf8_encode($str)) != utf8_encode($str) in most of the cases. What you can do is write utf8_ensure like:

function utf8_ensure($str) {
    return seems_utf8($str)? $str: utf8_encode($str);
}

Comes handy when your view library tries to encode the same text multiple times.
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ronen at greyzone dot com
14 years ago
The following function will utf-8 encode unicode entities &#nnn(nn); with n={0..9}

/**
* takes a string of unicode entities and converts it to a utf-8 encoded string
* each unicode entitiy has the form &#nnn(nn); n={0..9} and can be displayed by utf-8 supporting
* browsers.  Ascii will not be modified.
* @param $source string of unicode entities [STRING]
* @return a utf-8 encoded string [STRING]
* @access public
*/
function utf8Encode ($source) {
    $utf8Str = '';
    $entityArray = explode ("&#", $source);
    $size = count ($entityArray);
    for ($i = 0; $i < $size; $i++) {
        $subStr = $entityArray[$i];
        $nonEntity = strstr ($subStr, ';');
        if ($nonEntity !== false) {
            $unicode = intval (substr ($subStr, 0, (strpos ($subStr, ';') + 1)));
            // determine how many chars are needed to reprsent this unicode char
            if ($unicode < 128) {
                $utf8Substring = chr ($unicode);
            }
            else if ($unicode >= 128 && $unicode < 2048) {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 11, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 5);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 5);
           
                $char1 = chr (192 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2;
            }
            else if ($unicode >= 2048 && $unicode < 65536) {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 16, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 4);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 4, 6);
                $binPart3 = substr ($binVal, 10);
           
                $char1 = chr (224 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $char3 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart3));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2 . $char3;
            }
            else {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 21, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 3);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 3, 6);
                $binPart3 = substr ($binVal, 9, 6);
                $binPart4 = substr ($binVal, 15);
       
                $char1 = chr (240 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $char3 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart3));
                $char4 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart4));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2 . $char3 . $char4;
            }
           
            if (strlen ($nonEntity) > 1)
                $nonEntity = substr ($nonEntity, 1); // chop the first char (';')
            else
                $nonEntity = '';

            $utf8Str .= $utf8Substring . $nonEntity;
        }
        else {
            $utf8Str .= $subStr;
        }
    }

    return $utf8Str;
}
       
Ronen.
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migueldiaz at gennio dot com
10 years ago
Here's my function to know if one string is encoded in UTF8.

If we encode in UTF8 a string or text file that is already encoded in UTF8, it's expected to find the character '' ( ALT+159)  in the final string.

<?php

function isUTF8($string)
{
   
$string_utf8 = utf8_encode($string);
    if(
strpos($string_utf8,"",0) !== false ) // "" is ALT+159
        
return true// the original string was utf8
   
else
         return
false; // otherwise
}

?>

regards
Miguel Daz
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luka8088 at gmail dot com
9 years ago
simple HTML to UTF-8 conversion:

function html_to_utf8 ($data)
    {
    return preg_replace("/\\&\\#([0-9]{3,10})\\;/e", '_html_to_utf8("\\1")', $data);
    }

function _html_to_utf8 ($data)
    {
    if ($data > 127)
        {
        $i = 5;
        while (($i--) > 0)
            {
            if ($data != ($a = $data % ($p = pow(64, $i))))
                {
                $ret = chr(base_convert(str_pad(str_repeat(1, $i + 1), 8, "0"), 2, 10) + (($data - $a) / $p));
                for ($i; $i > 0; $i--)
                    $ret .= chr(128 + ((($data % pow(64, $i)) - ($data % ($p = pow(64, $i - 1)))) / $p));
                break;
                }
            }
        }
        else
        $ret = "&#$data;";
    return $ret;
    }

Example:
echo html_to_utf8("a b &#269; &#263; &#382; &#12371; &#12395; &#12385; &#12431; ()[]{}!#$?* &lt; &#62;");

Output:
a b č ć ž こ に ち わ ()[]{}!#$?* &lt; &#62;
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mualem_i at hotmail dot com
13 years ago
Hebrew!! What a language. I had some trouble placing the Hebrew in a javascript based drop down menu, the text appeared as UTF8 so I made this function to overcome the problem (Not talking about efficiency)

function rtf_heb($string)
    {
    $array = split (" ",$string) ;
    foreach ($array as $VAL)
        {
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1488","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1489","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1490","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1491","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1492","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1493","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1494","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1495","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1496","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1497","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1499","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1500","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1502","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1504","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1505","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1506","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1508","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1510","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1511","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1512","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1513","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1514","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1498","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1507","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1503","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1501","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1509","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace(";","",$VAL);
        $send_VAR .= $VAL." ";
       
        }
        return $send_VAR;
    }
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RoyLaw at 263 dot Net
13 years ago
There is a function for converting GB2312 code to Unicode code.It maybe useful for programming on XML/WML in non-English lanaguages.

<?
// Program by sadly (www.phpx.com)

function gb2unicode($gb)
{
   if(!trim($gb))
    return $gb;
   $filename="gb2312.txt";
   $tmp=file($filename);
   $codetable=array();
   while(list($key,$value)=each($tmp))
    $codetable[hexdec(substr($value,0,6))]=substr($value,9,4);
   $utf="";
   while($gb)
    {
      if (ord(substr($gb,0,1))>127)
     {
        $this=substr($gb,0,2);
        $gb=substr($gb,2,strlen($gb));
        $utf.="&#x".$codetable[hexdec(bin2hex($this))-0x8080].";";
      }
     else
     {
      $gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
      $utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
     }
     }
  return $utf;
}
?>

This function requires a code list of gb2312,you can download it at
ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/EASTASIA/GB/GB2312.TXT
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rbotzer at yahoo dot com
13 years ago
BTW, the 21-bit range is pretty old news.  Unicode 3.x uses a 31bit encoding scheme that allows for 2 billion characters.

I'll post an enhanced encoder soon.  In the meanwhile here's the current encoding scheme: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.html#utf-8

Ronen
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romans at void dot lv
14 years ago
Here is optimized function which converts binary UTF symbol code into unicoded string.

function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<1024)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<32768)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr($num>>18+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr(($num>>6)&63+128). chr($num&63+128);
  return '';
}
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dimitrisATccfDOTauthDOTgr
14 years ago
To make utf8_encode and utf8_decode support other than iso-8859-1 encodings, you can easily define your encoding in the PHP source.
In the file PHP_SOURCE/ext/xml/xml.c add the following code, for e.g. greek iso-8859-7:

DEFINE TWO NEW FUNCTIONS UP TOP:
inline static unsigned short xml_encode_iso_8859_7(unsigned char);
inline static char xml_decode_iso_8859_7(unsigned short);

AND THEN IMPLEMENT THEM BELOW:
/* {{{ xml_encode_iso_8859_7() - Dimitris Daskopoulos 28/8/02 */
/* map iso-8859-7 chars to Unicode chars */
inline static unsigned short xml_encode_iso_8859_7(unsigned char c)
{
        if (c < 0x80) { /* low-ASCII, leave as is */
                return (unsigned short)c;
        } else { /* Greek character in high-ASCII */
                /* map to UCS greek range (U+0310..03ff) */
                /* assume that c < 0xff */
                return (unsigned short)(c + 720);
        }
}
/* }}} */

/* {{{ xml_decode_iso_8859_7() - Dimitris Daskopoulos 28/8/02 */
/* map Unicode chars to iso-8859-7 chars */
inline static char xml_decode_iso_8859_7(unsigned short c)
{
        if (c < 0x100) { /* char in latin chart, leave as is */
                return (char)c;
        } else if (c > 0x030f && c < 0x0400) { /* char in greek chart */
                /* map back to ISO-8859-7 greek (high-ASCII) */
                return (char)(c - 720);
        } else { /* char not in latin or greek Unicode charts */
                /* return question mark character */
                return (char)('?');
        }
}
/* }}} */

These two work fine for greek iso-8859-7, but studying http://www.unicode.org/charts you
can implement mappings between unicode and other iso-8859-x quite easily.

In both functions (utf8_encode and utf8_decode), change the requested encoding to the one you prefer, e.g.

encoded = xml_utf8_encode(Z_STRVAL_PP(arg), Z_STRLEN_PP(arg), &len, "ISO-8859-7");

decoded = xml_utf8_decode(Z_STRVAL_PP(arg), Z_STRLEN_PP(arg), &len, "ISO-8859-7");

Make sure you add the new encoding
in the structure, by entering a new
row with the official name (ISO-8859-7), and the names of the
two functions you have just defined:
xml_encoding xml_encodings[] = {
        { "ISO-8859-1", xml_decode_iso_8859_1, xml_encode_iso_8859_1 },
        { "US-ASCII",   xml_decode_us_ascii,   xml_encode_us_ascii   },
        { "UTF-8",      NULL,                  NULL                  },
        { "ISO-8859-7", xml_decode_iso_8859_7, xml_encode_iso_8859_7 },
        { NULL,         NULL,                  NULL                  }
};

Finally, the following is probably not necessary, but I changed the default encoding (found in 2 spots in this file) to whatever encoding you prefer in your
pages, e.g.:
XML(default_encoding) = "ISO-8859-7";

This solution is a little messy,
since the utf8_encode function does not accept an argument for choosing the encoding method to use but hardwires the encoding method in the source code. Maybe PHP developers will provide this option in future releases. Until then, this is a quick and dirty solution that will work for
localized PHP pages.

Dimitris Daskopoulos
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