PHP 5.6.0beta1 released

foreach

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

foreach は、配列を反復処理するための便利な方法です。 foreach が使えるのは配列とオブジェクトだけであり、 別のデータ型や初期化前の変数に対して使うとエラーになります。 この構造には二種類の構文があります。

foreach (array_expression as $value)
    文
foreach (array_expression as $key => $value)
    文

最初の形式は、array_expressionで指定した配列に 関してループ処理を行います。各反復において現在の要素の値が $valueに代入され、内部配列ポインタが一つ前に 進められます。(よって、次の反復では次の要素を見ることになります。)

2番目の形式は、さらに各反復で現在の要素のキーを変数 $keyに代入します。

オブジェクトの反復処理をカスタマイズ することもできます。

注意:

foreachの実行開始時に内部配列ポインタは、 配列の先頭要素を指すように自動的にリセットされます。 このため、foreachループの前に reset()をコールする必要はありません。

foreach は内部の配列ポインタに依存するので、 ループ内で配列ポインタを変更すると予期せぬ振る舞いを引き起こします。

ループの中で配列の要素を直接変更したい場合は、 $value の前に & をつけます。こうすると、変数には リファレンス が代入されることになります。

<?php
$arr 
= array(1234);
foreach (
$arr as &$value) {
    
$value $value 2;
}
// $arr は array(2, 4, 6, 8) となります
unset($value); // 最後の要素への参照を解除します
?>

$value の参照は、ループ処理される配列が参照可能である場合 (すなわち、 変数である) のみ使用可能です。つまり、次のコードは動作しません。

<?php
foreach (array(1234) as &$value) {
    
$value $value 2;
}
?>

警告

foreach ループを終えた後でも、 $value は配列の最後の要素を参照したままとなります。 unset() でその参照を解除しておくようにしましょう。

注意:

foreach は、'@' によりエラーメッセージ出力を抑 制する機能をサポートしていません。

既にご存知かと思いますが、以下の文は機能的に等価です。

<?php
$arr 
= array("one""two""three");
reset($arr);
while (list(, 
$value) = each($arr)) {
    echo 
"Value: $value<br />\n";
}

foreach (
$arr as $value) {
    echo 
"Value: $value<br />\n";
}
?>

以下の文も機能的に等価です。

<?php
$arr 
= array("one""two""three");
reset($arr);
while (list(
$key$value) = each($arr)) {
    echo 
"Key: $key; Value: $value<br />\n";
}

foreach (
$arr as $key => $value) {
    echo 
"Key: $key; Value: $value<br />\n";
}
?>

使用法を示すためにその他の例を示します。

<?php
/* foreach の例 1: 値のみ */

$a = array(12317);

foreach (
$a as $v) {
    echo 
"Current value of \$a: $v.\n";
}

/* foreachの例2: 値 (説明用に、手動でアクセスする際の表記を出力) */

$a = array(12317);

$i 0/* 説明用 */

foreach ($a as $v) {
    echo 
"\$a[$i] => $v.\n";
    
$i++;
}

/* foreachの例3: キーと値 */

$a = array(
    
"one" => 1,
    
"two" => 2,
    
"three" => 3,
    
"seventeen" => 17
);

foreach (
$a as $k => $v) {
    echo 
"\$a[$k] => $v.\n";
}

/* foreach の例4: 多次元配列 */
$a = array();
$a[0][0] = "a";
$a[0][1] = "b";
$a[1][0] = "y";
$a[1][1] = "z";

foreach (
$a as $v1) {
    foreach (
$v1 as $v2) {
        echo 
"$v2\n";
    }
}

/* foreach の例5: 動的配列 */

foreach (array(12345) as $v) {
    echo 
"$v\n";
}
?>

ネストした配列の list() による展開

(PHP 5 >= 5.5.0)

PHP 5.5 からは、配列の配列の反復処理ができるようになりました。 値として list() を渡すと、 ネストした配列をループ変数に展開できます。

例を示します。

<?php
$array 
= [
    [
12],
    [
34],
];

foreach (
$array as list($a$b)) {
    
// $a にはネストした配列の最初の要素が含まれ、
    // $b には二番目の要素が含まれます。
    
echo "A: $a; B: $b\n";
}
?>

上の例の出力は以下となります。

A: 1; B: 2
A: 3; B: 4

list() で指定する要素数を、ネストした配列の要素数より少なくしてもかまいません。 その場合は、配列の残りの要素は無視されます。

<?php
$array 
= [
    [
12],
    [
34],
];

foreach (
$array as list($a)) {
    
// $b を指定していないことに注目。
    
echo "$a\n";
}
?>

上の例の出力は以下となります。

1
3

list() で指定した変数を埋めるだけの要素が足りないときには、notice が発生します。

<?php
$array 
= [
    [
12],
    [
34],
];

foreach (
$array as list($a$b$c)) {
    echo 
"A: $a; B: $b; C: $c\n";
}
?>

上の例の出力は以下となります。


Notice: Undefined offset: 2 in example.php on line 7
A: 1; B: 2; C: 

Notice: Undefined offset: 2 in example.php on line 7
A: 3; B: 4; C: 

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 17 notes

up
41
adam dot sindelar at gmail dot com
6 years ago
You can also use the alternative syntax for the foreach cycle:

<?php
foreach($array as $element):
 
#do something
endforeach;
?>

Just thought it worth mentioning.
up
25
tedivm at tedivm dot com
5 years ago
foreach and the while/list/each methods are not completely identical, and there are occasions where one way is beneficial over the other.

<?php
$arr
= array(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9);

foreach(
$arr as $key=>$value)
{
    unset(
$arr[$key + 1]);
    echo
$value . PHP_EOL;
}
?>
Output:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

<?php
$arr
= array(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9);

while (list(
$key, $value) = each($arr))
{
    unset(
$arr[$key + 1]);
    echo
$value . PHP_EOL;
}
?>
Output:
1 3 5 7 9


[EDIT BY danbrown AT php DOT net: Contains a typofix by (scissor AT phplabs DOT pl) on 30-JAN-2009.]
up
18
php at darkain dot com
1 year ago
"Reference of a $value and the last array element remain even after the foreach loop. It is recommended to destroy it by unset()."

I cannot stress this point of the documentation enough! Here is a simple example of exactly why this must be done:

<?php
$arr1
= array("a" => 1, "b" => 2, "c" => 3);
$arr2 = array("x" => 4, "y" => 5, "z" => 6);

foreach (
$arr1 as $key => &$val) {}
foreach (
$arr2 as $key => $val) {}

var_dump($arr1);
var_dump($arr2);
?>

The output is:
array(3) { ["a"]=> int(1) ["b"]=> int(2) ["c"]=> &int(6) }
array(3) { ["x"]=> int(4) ["y"]=> int(5) ["z"]=> int(6) }

Notice how the last index in $arr1 is now the value from the last index in $arr2!
up
2
Alastair Hole
13 days ago
What happened to this note:
"Unless the array is referenced, foreach operates on a copy of the specified array and not the array itself. foreach has some side effects on the array pointer. Don't rely on the array pointer during or after the foreach without resetting it."

Is this no longer the case?
It seems only to remain in the Serbian documentation: http://php.net/manual/sr/control-structures.foreach.php
up
7
billardmchl at aol dot com
2 years ago
This function find well the words, add well adds a () around short words, but the
array at the end of th function is the same as at the beginning.

<?php
function isole_mots($chaine)
{
   
$chaine = "le petit chat est fou";
   
$mots = preg_split('/[!,-.;?:()[ ]/', $chaine, -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
    foreach (
$mots as $mot)
    {
        if (
strlen($mot) <= 3)
           
$mot = "(".$mot.")";
    print
" inside foreach $mot <br>";
    }
print
"after foreach array mots";   
   
print_r($mots);
    die();
    return
$mots;
}
?>

inside foreach (le)
inside foreach petit
inside foreach chat
inside foreach (est)
inside foreach (fou)
after foreach array motsArray ( [0] => le [1] => petit [2] => chat [3] => est [4] => fou )
up
7
dtowell
1 year ago
References created by foreach hang around past their best-used-by date. For example, the following:

<?php
$a
= array('abe','ben','cam');
foreach (
$a as $k=>&$n)
   
$n = strtoupper($n);
foreach (
$a as $k=>$n) // notice NO reference here!
   
echo "$n\n";
print_r($a);
?>

will result in:

ABE
BEN
BEN
Array
(
    [0] => ABE
    [1] => BEN
    [2] => BEN
)
up
6
nobody at nobody dot com
2 years ago
<?php
$d3
= array('a'=>array('b'=>'c'));
foreach(
$d3['a'] as &$v4){}
foreach(
$d3 as $v4){}
var_dump($d3);
?>
will get something look like this:
array(1) {
  ["a"]=>
  array(1) {
    ["b"]=>
    &array(1) {
      ["b"]=>
      *RECURSION*
    }
  }
}
then you try to walk some data with this array.
the script run out of memory and connect reset by peer

the document says:
Warning
Reference of a $value and the last array element remain even after the foreach loop. It is recommended to destroy it by unset().

so what I learn is that NEVER ignore """Warning""" in document....
up
5
Oleg englishman at bigmir dot net
3 years ago
For those who'd like to traverse an array including just added elements (within this very foreach), here's a workaround:

<?php
$values
= array(1 => 'a', 2 => 'b', 3 => 'c');
while (list(
$key, $value) = each($values)) {
    echo
"$key => $value \r\n";
    if (
$key == 3) {
       
$values[4] = 'd';
    }
    if (
$key == 4) {
       
$values[5] = 'e';
    }
}
?>

the code above will output:

1 => a
2 => b
3 => c
4 => d
5 => e
up
0
Delian Krustev
9 months ago
I want to add some inline comments to dtowell's piece of code about the iteration by reference:

<?php

$a
= array('abe','ben','cam');

foreach (
$a as $k=>&$n)
   
$n = strtoupper($n);

# At the end of this cycle the variable $n refers to the same memory as $a[2]
# So when the second "foreach" assigns a value to $n :

foreach ($a as $k=>$n) // notice NO reference here!
   
echo "$n\n";

# it is also modifying $a[2] .
# So on the three repetitions of the second "foreach" the array will look like:
# 1. ('abe','ben','abe') - assigned the value of the first element to the last element
# 2. ('abe','ben','ben') - assigned the value of the second element to the last element
# 3. ('abe','ben','ben') - assigned the value of the third element to itself

print_r($a);
?>
up
-1
sainthyoga2003 at gmail dot com
17 days ago
Note that prior to PHP 5.5 you will get a T_LIST parse error for:
<?php
foreach($list as list($a, $b)) {...
?>
up
-3
Anonymous
7 months ago
[quote]
I want to add some inline comments to dtowell's piece of code about the iteration by reference:

<?php

$a
= array('abe','ben','cam');

foreach (
$a as $k=>&$n)
   
$n = strtoupper($n);

# At the end of this cycle the variable $n refers to the same memory as $a[2]
# So when the second "foreach" assigns a value to $n :

foreach ($a as $k=>$n) // notice NO reference here!
   
echo "$n\n";

# it is also modifying $a[2] .
# So on the three repetitions of the second "foreach" the array will look like:
# 1. ('abe','ben','abe') - assigned the value of the first element to the last element
# 2. ('abe','ben','ben') - assigned the value of the second element to the last element
# 3. ('abe','ben','ben') - assigned the value of the third element to itself

print_r($a);
?>
[/quote]

To resolve this problem - should always use unset after foreach:
<?php

$array
= array('abe','ben','cam');

foreach (
$array as $key=>&$val ) {}
unset(
$key); unset($val);
foreach (
$array as $key=>$val ) {}
unset(
$key); unset($val);

print_r($array);
up
-3
mvaqasuddin at gmail dot com
2 months ago
more control over foreach you can use these code for zebra stripping in table class or other.

foreach ( $data as $key => $row ) {
                   
                    $class = fmod( $key,2 ) ? 'even' : 'odd';

                    echo '<tr class = "'.$class.'" >';

                    foreach ( $row as $cell ) {
                      
                        echo "<td>$cell</td>";
                   
                    }

                    echo "</tr>";
                }
up
-14
Voitcus at wp dot pl
2 years ago
You can even iterate through "dynamic" arrays that do not physically exist, but are objects that implement Iterator interface. They don't need to be stored in memory when foreach starts.

Consider the array that contains some values (I called it $allValues in the example below) and we want to have only some of them (eg. the ones that are dividable by 2). I create an object that would serve as dynamic array, that means it would "dynamically update" its values together with $allValues. The main advantage is that I store only one array, and it's the only array I serialize.

An object of MyIter class will not contain any values itself:
<?php
class MyIter implements Iterator { // you can implement ArrayAccess and Countable interfaces too, this will make class MyIter behave like a "real" array
 
private $position = 0; // an internal position of the current element
  // please note that $position has nothing common with $allValues!

 
private function getTable(){ // prepare a temporary "static" table of all objects in the class
   
global $allValues;
   
$result=array(); // temporary variable
   
foreach($allValues as $obj){
      if(
$obj % 2 == 0) // check if the value is even
       
$result[]=$obj; // if yes, I want it
     
}
    return
$result;
  }   

 
// the all below declared methods are public and belong to the Iterator interface
 
function rewind() { // a method to start iterating
   
$this->position = 0; // just move to the beginning
 
}

  function
current() { // retrieves the current element
   
$table=$this->getTable(); // let us prepare a table
   
return $table[$this->position]; // and return the current element
 
}

  function
key() { // retrieves the current element's key
   
return $this->position; // this is used by foreach(... as $key=>$value), not important here
 
}

  function
next() { // move to next element
   
++$this->position;
  }

  function
valid() { // check if the current element is valid (ie. if it exists)
   
return array_key_exists($this->position, $this->getTable());
  }
}
// end of class

// now prepare the array of 12 elements
$allValues=array(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11);

//we would like to have a dynamic array of all even values
$iterator=new MyIter();

foreach(
$iterator as $value){
  echo
$value."<br />";
}
?>
This will result in:
0
2
4
6
8
10

(You may also like to see what var_dump($iterator) produces).

Another great advantage is that you can modify the main table "on-the-fly" and it has its impact. Let us modify the last foreach loop:
<?php
// ...all above shall stay as it was
foreach($iterator as $value){
  echo
$value."<br />";
  if(
$value==6){
   
$allValues=array(2,3);
    echo
"I modified source array!<br />";
  }
}
?>
This produces now:
0
2
4
6
I modified source array!

However, if you feel it is rather a catastrophic disadvantage (maybe for example, it shows the values 0, 4, and 6 which were removed when we reached 6), and wish to have a "static" array that will iterate even in modified objects, just call getTable() in rewind() method and save it in temporary (private perhaps) field. In my example getTable() is called every iteration, and it calls another foreach through $allValues, which together might be time-consuming. Consider what you need.
up
-15
Ashus
1 year ago
If you wondered how to create a list of all possible combinations of variable amount of arrays (multiple foreach), you might use this:

<?php

$a
[0] = array('a1','a2');
$a[1] = array('b1','b2','b3');
$a[2] = array('c1','c2');

function
getAllCombinations($a,$i,$s)
    {
    foreach (
$a[$i] as $v)
        {
        if (!isset(
$a[$i+1]))
            {
            echo
$s.$v."\n";
            } else {
           
getAllCombinations($a,$i+1,$s.$v);
            }
        }
    return
$s;
    }

echo
getAllCombinations($a,0,'');

?>

the result:

a1b1c1
a1b1c2
a1b2c1
a1b2c2
a1b3c1
a1b3c2
a2b1c1
a2b1c2
a2b2c1
a2b2c2
a2b3c1
a2b3c2
up
-15
Luke at chaoticlogic dot net
6 years ago
Alright, I had a little error. I had one foreach() declaration, and then another foreach() declaration.

They went:
<?php
//$connections is an array of Socket resources
foreach ($connections as $key => &$value) {
   
//the code here is impertinent

}

//$users is an associative array
foreach ($users as $key => &$value) {
   
//the code here is impertinent
}
?>

Alright, now, what error was produced as a result of this?
This one:
"Warning: Cannot use scalar value as array in filename.php on line 69."

I then realized something; the reason for this came from the fact that I used $key, and $value for both of them in the exact same way.

As a response to this, I've developed two ways to fix this:
<?php
//add this to the end of every foreach() you use
unset($key,$value)
?>

OR

Simply use different variables for each one.
up
-20
simplex
7 years ago
"As of PHP 5, you can easily modify array's elements by preceding $value with &. This will assign reference instead of copying the value."

There are cases where array_walk or array_map are inadequate (conditional required) or you're just too lazy to write a function and pass values to it for use with array_map...

My solution to foreach for php 4 and 5 to modify values of an array directly:

<?php

$testarr
= array("a" => 1, "b" => 2, "c" => 3, "d" => 4);

$testarr_keys = array_keys($testarr);
$testarr_values = array_values($testarr);

for (
$i = 0; $i <= count($testarr) - 1; $i++) {
   
$testarr[$testarr_keys[$i]] = $testarr_values[$i] * 2;
}

print_r($testarr);
?>
up
-20
php at electricsurfer dot com
10 years ago
[Ed Note:  You can also use array_keys() so that you don't have to have the $value_copy variable --alindeman at php.net]

I use the following to modify the original values of the array:

<?php
foreach ($array as $key=>$value_copy)
{
    
$value =& $array[$key];
    
// ...
    
$value = 'New Value';
}
?>
To Top