International PHP Conference 2019 - Spring Edition

getenv

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7)

getenv Получение значения переменной окружения

Описание

string getenv ( string $varname [, bool $local_only = FALSE ] )
array getenv ( void )

Получает значение переменной среды.

Список всех переменных окружения можно посмотреть с помощью функции phpinfo(). Многие из этих переменных есть в документе » RFC 3875, по большей части в разделе 4.1, "Request Meta-Variables".

Список параметров

varname

Имя переменной.

local_only

Установите в значение TRUE для получения только локальных переменных окружения (установленные операционной системой или командой putenv).

Возвращаемые значения

Возвращает значение переменной среды varname или FALSE, если переменной varname не существует. Если varname опущен, будет возвращены все переменные окружения в виде ассоциативного массива (array).

Список изменений

Версия Описание
7.1.0 Параметр varname теперь может быть опущен для получения ассоциативного массива ( array) всех переменных окружения.
5.5.38, 5.6.24, 7.0.9 Был добавлен параметр local_only.

Примечания

Внимание

Если PHP запущен в SAPI, например как Fast CGI, эта функция будет возвращать значения переменных окружения установленных SAPI, даже если вы использовали putenv() для установки локальной переменной с таким же именем. Используйте параметр local_only для получения установленных локально переменных.

Примеры

Пример #1 Пример использования getenv()

<?php
// Пример использования getenv()
$ip getenv('REMOTE_ADDR');

// Можно еще воспользоваться суперглобальной переменной ($_SERVER или $_ENV)
$ip $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];

// Гарантированно получаем значение переменной окружения, не обращая внимания,
// была ли она переопределена SAPI или изменена с помощью putenv
$ip getenv('REMOTE_ADDR'true) ?: getenv('REMOTE_ADDR')
?>

Смотрите также

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User Contributed Notes 13 notes

up
36
eng.mrkto.com
8 years ago
This function is useful (compared to $_SERVER, $_ENV) because it searches $varname key in those array case-insensitive manner.
For example on Windows $_SERVER['Path'] is like you see Capitalized, not 'PATH' as you expected.
So just: <?php getenv('path') ?>
up
6
yw()beeznest!com
2 years ago
As noted on httpoxy.org, getenv() can confuse you in having you believe that all variables come from a "safe" environment (not all of them do).

In particular, $_SERVER['HTTP_PROXY'] (or its equivalent getenv('HTTP_PROXY')) can be manually set in the HTTP request header, so it should not be considered safe in a CGI environment.

In short, try to avoid using getenv('HTTP_PROXY') without properly filtering it.
up
16
php at keith tyler dot com
6 years ago
All of the notes and examples so far have been strictly CGI.
It should not be understated the usefulness of getenv()/putenv() in CLI as well.

You can pass a number of variables to a CLI script via environment variables, either in Unix/Linux bash/sh with the "VAR='foo'; export $VAR" paradigm, or in Windows with the "set VAR='foo'" paradigm. (Csh users, you're on your own!) getenv("VAR") will retrieve that value from the environment.

We have a system by which we include a file full of putenv() statements storing configuration values that can apply to many different CLI PHP programs. But if we want to override these values, we can use the shell's (or calling application, such as ant) environment variable setting method to do so.

This saves us from having to manage an unmanageable amount of one-off configuration changes per execution via command line arguments; instead we just set the appropriate env var first.
up
8
hello at jabran dot me
3 years ago
Beware that when using this function with PHP built-in server – i.e. php -S localhost:8000 – it will return boolean FALSE.
up
7
kyong
14 years ago
As you know, getenv('DOCUMENT_ROOT') is useful.
However, under CLI environment(I tend to do quick check
if it works or not), it doesn't work without modified php.ini
file. So I add "export DOCUMENT_ROOT=~" in my .bash_profile.
up
1
pritisn at gmail dot com
3 years ago
for quick check of getenv() adding a new env variable -
if you add a new env variable, make sure not only apache but xampp is also restarted.
Otherwise getenv() will return false for the newly added env variable.
up
2
chuck dot reeves at gmail dot com
8 years ago
When writing CLI applications, not that any environment variables that are set in your web server config will not be passed through.  PHP will pass through system environment variables that are prefixed based off the safe_mode_allowed_env_vars directive in your php.ini
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2
sam at sambarrow dot com
10 years ago
SERVER_NAME is the name defined in the apache configuration.
HTTP_HOST is the host header sent by the client when using the more recent versions of the http protocol.
up
2
Anonymous
6 months ago
Contrary to what eng.mrkto.com said, getenv() isn't always case-insensitive. On Linux it is not:

<?php
var_dump
(getenv('path')); // bool(false)
var_dump(getenv('Path')); // bool(false)
var_dump(getenv('PATH')); // string(13) "/usr/bin:/bin"
up
1
larby dot robert at gmail dot com
2 months ago
From PHP 7.1 => getenv() no longer requires its parameter. If the parameter is omitted, then the current environment variables will be returned as an associative array.

Source: http://php.net/manual/en/migration71.changed-functions.php
up
0
jaraco at jaraco dot com
1 year ago
The example on how to fallback produces a syntax error on PHP 5.2:

-bash-3.2$ cat test.php
<?php

$ip
= getenv('REMOTE_ADDR', true) ?: getenv('REMOTE_ADDR')

?>

-bash-3.2$ /web/cgi-bin/php5 test.php
Content-type: text/html

<br />
<b>Parse error</b>:  syntax error, unexpected ':' in <b>/home/content/25/11223125/test.php</b> on line <b>3</b><br />

On PHP 5.2, one must write

$ip = getenv('REMOTE_ADDR', true) ? getenv('REMOTE_ADDR', true) : getenv('REMOTE_ADDR')
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-26
f dot hartmann2 at gmx dot net
9 years ago
A function returning the remote adress of the visiting browser could look like this:

<?php
function getIPfromXForwarded() {
   
$ipString=@getenv("HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR");
   
$addr = explode(",",$ipString);
    return
$addr[sizeof($addr)-1];
}
?>

Note that some adresses are followed by a whitespace and ip2long(getIPfromXForwarded()) would not return the expected result.

Make use of trim() in your scripts, either in the function itself, or the surrounding space of the caller.

Greetings
up
-31
renko at <remove>virtual-life dot net
13 years ago
The function 'getenv' does not work if your Server API is ASAPI (IIS).

So, try to don't use getenv('REMOTE_ADDR'), but $_SERVER["REMOTE_ADDR"].
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