PHP 5.5.37 is released

Operator-Rangfolge

Die Operator-Rangfolge legt fest, wie "eng" ein Operator zwei Ausdrücke miteinander verbindet. Zum Beispiel ist das Ergebnis des Ausdruckes 1 + 5 * 3 16 und nicht 18, da der Multiplikations-Operator ("*") in der Rangfolge höher steht als der Additions-Operator ("+"). Wenn nötig, können Sie Klammern setzen, um die Rangfolge der Operatoren zu beeinflussen. Zum Beispiel ergibt: (1 + 5) * 3 18. Ist die Rangfolge der Operatoren gleich, wird links nach rechts Assoziativität benutzt.

Die folgende Tabelle zeigt die Rangfolge der Operatoren, oben steht der Operator mit dem höchsten Rang.

Operator-Rangfolge
Assoziativität Operator
keine Richtung new
links [
rechts ! ~ ++ -- (int) (float) (string) (array) (object) @
links * / %
links + - .
links << >>
keine Richtung < <= > >=
keine Richtung == != === !==
links &
links ^
links |
links &&
links ||
links ? :
rechts = += -= *= /= .= %= &= |= ^= <<= >>=
rechts print
links and
links xor
links or
links ,

Hinweis:

Obwohl ! einen höheren Rang gegenüber = hat, erlaubt es Ihnen PHP immer noch ähnliche Ausdrücke wie den folgenden zu schreiben: if (!$a =foo()).In diesem Ausdruck wird die Ausgabe von foo() der Variablen $a zugewiesen.

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User Contributed Notes 9 notes

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67
Antistone
2 years ago
BEWARE:  Addition, subtraction, and string concatenation have equal precedence!
<?
$x = 4;
echo "x minus one equals " . $x-1 . ", or so I hope";
?>
will print "-1, or so I hope"

(Concatenate the first string literal and the value of $x, then implicitly convert that to a number (zero) so you can subtract 1 from it, then concatenate the final string literal.)
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30
fabmlk
1 year ago
Watch out for the difference of priority between 'and vs &&' or '|| vs or':
<?php
$bool
= true && false;
var_dump($bool); // false, that's expected

$bool = true and false;
var_dump($bool); // true, ouch!
?>
Because 'and/or' have lower priority than '=' but '||/&&' have higher.
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11
nicoolasens at gmail dot com
8 months ago
Too add something ton Antistone's comment :
{Antistone ¶
1 year ago
BEWARE:  Addition, subtraction, and string concatenation have equal precedence!
<?
$x = 4;
echo "x minus one equals " . $x-1 . ", or so I hope";
?>
will print "-1, or so I hope"

(Concatenate the first string literal and the value of $x, then implicitly convert that to a number (zero) so you can subtract 1 from it, then concatenate the final string literal.)
}

You can use the operator "," instead of ".".
This way allows you to concatenate the first string literal after $x-1.
So the first string literal is note convert to a number (zero) .
Solution :

<?php
$x
= 4;
echo
"x minus one equals " , $x-1 . ", or so I hope";
?>

will print :
"x minus one equals 3, or so I hope "
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24
Carsten Milkau
3 years ago
Beware the unusual order of bit-wise operators and comparison operators, this has often lead to bugs in my experience. For instance:

<?php if ( $flags & MASK  == 1) do_something(); ?>

will not do what you might expect from other languages. Use

<?php if (($flags & MASK) == 1) do_something(); ?>

in PHP instead.
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2
Bilal Mustafa
2 months ago
Another way to sort out the problem mentioned by "nicoolasens at gmail dot com" and "Antistone" is:

<?php
$x
= 4;
echo
"x minus one equals " . $x-1 . ", or so I hope";
?>
will print "-1, or so I hope"

Solution:

We can wrap the methematical part in "()" and let the parser tell to solve it first in other words here we can get the benefit of higher precedence of "()" So if we rewrite the example as:

<?php
$x
= 4;
echo
"x minus one equals " . ($x-1) . ", or so I hope";
?>

The answer will be according to our expectation which is:

"x minus one equals 3, or so I hope"
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3
karlisd at gmail dot com
7 months ago
Sometimes it's easier to understand things in your own examples.
If you want to play around operator precedence and look which tests will be made, you can play around with this:

<?php
function F($v) {echo $v." "; return false;}
function
T($v) {echo $v." "; return true;}

IF (
F(0) || T(1) && F(2)  || F(3)  && ! F(4) ) {
  echo
"true";
} else echo
" false";
?>
Now put in IF arguments f for false and t for true, put in them some ID's. Play out by changing "F" to "T" and vice versa, by keeping your ID the same. See output and you will know which arguments  actualy were checked.
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5
headden at karelia dot ru
7 years ago
Although example above already shows it, I'd like to explicitly state that ?: associativity DIFFERS from that of C++. I.e. convenient switch/case-like expressions of the form

$i==1 ? "one" :
$i==2 ? "two" :
$i==3 ? "three" :
"error";

will not work in PHP as expected
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0
Anonymous
1 year ago
The following example will output false
$a = 1;
$b = 1;

$c = $a + $a++;
$d = 1 + $b++;

if($c == $d){
    echo 'true';
}else{
    echo 'false';
}
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0
leipie at gmail dot com
3 years ago
The precedence of the arrow operator (->) on objects seems to the highest of all, even higher then clone.

But you can't wrap (clone $foo)->bar() like this!
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