PHP Australia Conference 2015

switch

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

L'instruction switch équivaut à une série d'instructions if. En de nombreuses occasions, vous aurez besoin de comparer la même variable (ou expression) avec un grand nombre de valeurs différentes, et d'exécuter différentes parties de code suivant la valeur à laquelle elle est égale. C'est exactement à cela que sert l'instruction switch.

Note: Notez que contrairement à d'autres langages, la structure continue s'applique aux structures switch et se comporte de la même manière que break. Si vous avez un switch dans une boucle, et que vous souhaitez continuer jusqu'à la prochaine itération de la boucle extérieure, vous devez utiliser continue 2.

Note:

Notez que switch/case provoque une comparaison large.

Les deux exemples suivants sont deux manières différentes d'écrire la même chose, l'une en utilisant une séries de if, et l'autre en utilisant l'instruction switch :

Exemple #1 Instruction switch

<?php
if ($i == 0) {
    echo 
"i égal 0";
} elseif (
$i == 1) {
    echo 
"i égal 1";
} elseif (
$i == 2) {
    echo 
"i égal 2";
}

switch (
$i) {
    case 
0:
        echo 
"i égal 0";
        break;
    case 
1:
        echo 
"i égal 1";
        break;
    case 
2:
        echo 
"i égal 2";
        break;
}
?>

Exemple #2 Instruction switch utilisant une chaîne de caractères

<?php
switch ($i) {
    case 
"apple":
        echo 
"i est une tarte";
        break;
    case 
"bar":
        echo 
"i est une barre";
        break;
    case 
"cake":
        echo 
"i est un gateau";
        break;
}
?>

Il est important de comprendre que l'instruction switch exécute chacune des clauses dans l'ordre. L'instruction switch est exécutée ligne par ligne. Au début, aucun code n'est exécuté. Seulement lorsqu'un case est vérifié, PHP exécute alors les instructions correspondantes. PHP continue d'exécuter les instructions jusqu'à la fin du bloc d'instructions du switch, ou bien dès qu'il trouve l'instruction break. Si vous ne pouvez pas utiliser l'instruction break à la fin de l'instruction case, PHP continuera à exécuter toutes les instructions qui suivent. Par exemple :

<?php
switch ($i) {
    case 
0:
        echo 
"i égal 0";
    case 
1:
        echo 
"i égal 1";
    case 
2:
        echo 
"i égal 2";
}
?>

Dans cet exemple, si $i est égal à 0, PHP va exécuter quand même toutes les instructions qui suivent! Si $i est égal à 1, PHP exécutera les deux dernières instructions. Et seulement si $i est égal à 2, vous obtiendrez le résultat escompté, c'est-à-dire, l'affichage de "i égal 2". Donc, l'important est de ne pas oublier l'instruction break (même s'il est possible que vous l'omettiez dans certaines circonstances).

Dans une commande switch, une condition n'est évaluée qu'une fois, et le résultat est comparé à chaque case. Dans une structure elseif, les conditions sont évaluées à chaque comparaison. Si votre condition est plus compliquée qu'une simple comparaison, ou bien fait partie d'une boucle, switch sera plus rapide.

La liste de commandes d'un case peut être vide, auquel cas PHP utilisera la liste de commandes du cas suivant.

<?php
switch ($i) {
case 
0:
case 
1:
case 
2:
    echo 
"i est plus petit que 3 mais n'est pas négatif";
    break;
case 
3:
    echo 
"i égal 3";
}
?>

Un cas spécial est default. Ce cas est utilisé lorsque tous les autres cas ont échoué. Par exemple :

<?php
switch ($i) {
    case 
0:
        echo 
"i égal 0";
        break;
    case 
1:
        echo 
"i égal 1";
        break;
    case 
2:
        echo 
"i égal 2";
        break;
    default:
       echo 
"i n'est ni égal à 2, ni à 1, ni à 0.";
}
?>

Une autre chose à mentionner est que la valeur du case peut être toute expression de type scalaire, c'est-à-dire nombre entier, nombre à virgule flottante et chaîne de caractères. Les tableaux sont sans intérêt dans ce contexte-là.

La syntaxe alternative pour cette structure de contrôle est la suivante : (pour plus d'informations, voir syntaxes alternatives).

<?php
switch ($i):
    case 
0:
        echo 
"i égal 0";
        break;
    case 
1:
        echo 
"i égal 1";
        break;
    case 
2:
        echo 
"i égal 2";
        break;
    default:
        echo 
"i n'est ni égal à 2, ni à 1, ni à 0";
endswitch;
?>

Il est possible d'utiliser un point-virgule plutôt que deux points après un case, comme ceci :

<?php
switch($beer)
{
    case 
'leffe';
    case 
'grimbergen';
    case 
'guinness';
        echo 
'Bon choix';
    break;
    default;
        echo 
'Merci de faire un choix...';
    break;
}
?>

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 57 notes

up
31
MaxTheDragon at home dot nl
2 years ago
This is listed in the documentation above, but it's a bit tucked away between the paragraphs. The difference between a series of if statements and the switch statement is that the expression you're comparing with, is evaluated only once in a switch statement. I think this fact needs a little bit more attention, so here's an example:

<?php
$a
= 0;

if(++
$a == 3) echo 3;
elseif(++
$a == 2) echo 2;
elseif(++
$a == 1) echo 1;
else echo
"No match!";

// Outputs: 2

$a = 0;

switch(++
$a) {
    case
3: echo 3; break;
    case
2: echo 2; break;
    case
1: echo 1; break;
    default: echo
"No match!"; break;
}

// Outputs: 1
?>

It is therefore perfectly safe to do:

<?php
switch(winNobelPrizeStartingFromBirth()) {
case
"peace": echo "You won the Nobel Peace Prize!"; break;
case
"physics": echo "You won the Nobel Prize in Physics!"; break;
case
"chemistry": echo "You won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry!"; break;
case
"medicine": echo "You won the Nobel Prize in Medicine!"; break;
case
"literature": echo "You won the Nobel Prize in Literature!"; break;
default: echo
"You bought a rusty iron medal from a shady guy who insists it's a Nobel Prize..."; break;
}
?>

without having to worry about the function being re-evaluated for every case. There's no need to preemptively save the result in a variable either.
up
7
lko at netuse dot de
6 years ago
Attention if you have mixed types of value in one switch statemet it can make you some trouble

<?php

$string
="2string";

switch(
$string)
{
    case
1:
        echo
"this is 1";
        break;
    case
2:
        echo
"this is 2";
        break;
    case
'2string':
        echo
"this is a string";
        break;
}

?>

The swich-statement will halt on 'case 2'

Answer: this is 2
up
6
mmxg at shaw dot ca
6 years ago
In reply to lko at netuse dot de

Just so others know whom may not, that's because PHP does automatic type conversion if a string is evaluated as an integer (it sees the 2 in '2string' so when compared like if ('2string' == 2), PHP sees if (2 == 2) ).

I just tested it, but if you go:

<?php

$string
="2string";

switch(
$string)
{
    case (string)
1:
        echo
"this is 1";
        break;
    case (string)
2:
        echo
"this is 2";
        break;
    case
'2string':
        echo
"this is a string";
        break;
}

?>

The output will be "this is a string" and if you change $string to "2" it will again be "this is 2".

Just in case that may help anyone who may run into that problem.
up
3
Gutza
8 months ago
Sometimes you need to execute a common piece of code for several cases, and then execute some special code for each of those cases in particular. You'd then be tempted to duplicate "case" entries, like so:

<?php

$health
= 50;
$prevActionType = "none";

$action = "kill";

switch(
$action) {

case
"heal":
 
$prevActionType = "good";
 
$health += 10;
  break;

case
"hurt":
case
"kill":
 
$prevActionType = "bad";
  break;

case
"hurt":
 
$health -= 10;
  break;

case
"kill":
 
$health = 0;
  break;

}

?>

That won't work as intended -- you'll enter at the first case that matches ($prevActionType = "bad") and then exit the switch altogether.
up
9
Anonymous
2 years ago
Rewriting the function (to be three times faster) provided by [stever at ashomecare dot com 07-Sep-2007 09:11] and demonstrating points that others have made:

<?php
function getChineseZodiac($year){

    switch (
$year % 12) :
        case 
0: return 'Monkey'// Years 0, 12, 1200, 2004...
       
case  1: return 'Rooster';
        case 
2: return 'Dog';
        case 
3: return 'Boar';
        case 
4: return 'Rat';
        case 
5: return 'Ox';
        case 
6: return 'Tiger';
        case 
7: return 'Rabit';
        case 
8: return 'Dragon';
        case 
9: return 'Snake';
        case
10: return 'Horse';
        case
11: return 'Lamb';
    endswitch;
}

echo
getChineseZodiac(2016);
?>
up
4
cretz
6 years ago
Haven't seen it mentioned here, but at least in my version (PHP 5.2.5) and I'm sure all of PHP 5, the switch statement is a great way to check type safe enumerates that are otherwise missing in the PHP language. Example:

<?php

class WannabeEnum {
   
/**
     * @var WannabeEnum
     */
   
public static $FOO;
   
/**
     * @var WannabeEnum
     */
   
public static $BAR;
   
/**
     * @var WannabeEnum
     */
   
public static $FOOBAR;
    private
$_ordinal;
    public function
__construct($ordinal) {
       
$this->_ordinal = $ordinal;
    }
}
WannabeEnum::$FOO = new WannabeEnum(1);
WannabeEnum::$BAR = new WannabeEnum(2);
WannabeEnum::$FOOBAR = new WannabeEnum(3);

function
testSwitch(WannabeEnum $wannabeEnum) {
    switch(
$wannabeEnum) {
        case
WannabeEnum::$FOO:
            echo(
'Foo!' . PHP_EOL);
            break;
        case
WannabeEnum::$BAR:
            echo(
'Bar!' . PHP_EOL);
            break;
        default:
            echo(
'Default!' . PHP_EOL);
    }   
}
testSwitch(WannabeEnum::$FOO);
testSwitch(WannabeEnum::$FOOBAR);
?>

Outputs:

Foo!
Default!

Don't forget it uses loose comparisons!
up
8
nospam at please dot com
13 years ago
Just a trick I have picked up:

If you need to evaluate several variables to find the first one with an actual value, TRUE for instance. You can do it this was.

There is probably a better way but it has worked out well for me.

switch (true) {

  case (X != 1):

  case (Y != 1):

  default:
}
up
5
mar dot czapla at gmail dot com
5 years ago
<?php
   
/* script 1  */
   
$foo = "not a number";
    switch(
false)
    {
        case
"1":    {    $foo = "1";    break;    }
        case
"2":    {    $foo = "2";    break;    }
        default:    {   
$foo = "0";    }
    }
   
    echo
$foo;    // will produce "not a number"
   
    /* script 2  */
   
$foo = "not a number";
   
$arr = array("not a number"); // 1 element only !
   
switch($arr[1])    // element $foo[1] doesn't defined
   
{
        case
"1":    {    $foo = "1";    break;    }
        case
"2":    {    $foo = "2";    break;    }
        default:    {   
$foo = "0";    }
    }
   
    echo
$foo;    // will produce "not a number" ( not 0 ! )
   
    /* script 3  */
   
$foo = "not a number";
   
$arr = array("not a number"); // 1 element only !
   
switch($arr[1]?$arr[1]:"1")    // element $foo[1] doesn't defined
   
{
        case
"1":    {    $foo = "1";    break;    }
        case
"2":    {    $foo = "2";    break;    }
        default:    {   
$foo = "0";    }
    }
   
    echo
$foo;   
   
// will produce :
    // 1 if $arr[1] isn't set
    // 1 if $arr[1]=1
    // 2 if $arr[1]=2
    // 0 if none of above
?>
up
4
Keil
5 years ago
As follow-up to ben dot lancaster at holler dot co dot uk's post:

'continue' ends the switch, not the case, just as it would with any other flow control. Think of it as putting the execution pointer right before the ending accolade (that is, the }) because that is essentially what happens. In the case of a for loop, this would cause the iteration clause to execute, and if applicable, the loop to begin again. However, switches do not loop, which is why (as noted above, in the manual!) a continue statement essentially acts as a break when within a switch.
up
6
sedativchunk at gmail dot com
5 years ago
Not sure if this has been posted or not, but I found the switch statement useful for finding ranges of data.

This script creates web 2.0 style links in different font sizes (popular on blogs) using a randomizer and switch statement. I used links from within a database for a mod I made for a Simple Machines forums, but this example uses arrays for links if you wanted to add your own custom links:
<?php
// Create set of links
$link = array();
$link[] = '<a href="whatever.html">page 1</a>';
$link[] = '<a href="whatever.html">page 2</a>';
$link[] = '<a href="whatever.html">page 3</a>';
$link[] = '<a href="whatever.html">page 4</a>';
$link[] = '<a href="whatever.html">page 5</a>';
$link[] = '<a href="whatever.html">page 6</a>';
$link[] = '<a href="whatever.html">page 7</a>';
$link[] = '<a href="whatever.html">page 8</a>';

// Create loop to display links
for($i = 0; $i < count($link); ++$i)
{
   
// Create randomizer
    // Use switch statement to find font size
   
$randomizer = rand(1,50);
    switch(
$randomizer)
    {
    case (
$randomizer <= 20):
   
$font_size = "11";
    break;

    case (
$randomizer <= 30):
   
$font_size = "16";
    break;

    case (
$randomizer <= 40):
   
$font_size = "18";
    break;

    case (
$randomizer <= 50):
   
$font_size = "20";
    break;
    }

   
// Display the link
   
echo '<span style="font-size: ' .$font_size. ';">' .$link[$i]. '</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;';

// Loop the next link
}
?>

Using this type of range randomizer is useful for game development and it can be useful on the web too, for things where you don't want to use a randomizer just for things like (1-5) where you wanted a more then likely result for one thing over another. The switch statement saves from writing spaghetti code if statements.
up
4
manicdepressive at mindless dot com
10 years ago
Be careful if distinguishing between NULL and (int)0.  As implied in the above documentation, the case statements are equivalent to the '==' operator, not the '===' operator, so the following code did not work as i expected:

<?php
$mixed
= 0;
switch(
$mixed){
   case
NULL: echo "NULL";  break;
   case
0: echo "zero";  break;
   default: echo
"other"; break;
}
?>

Instead, I may use a chain of else-ifs.  (On this page, kriek at jonkreik dot com states that "in most cases [a switch statement] is 15% faster [than an else-if chain]" but jemore at m6net dotdot fr claims that when using ===, if/elseif/elseif can be 2 times faster than a switch().)

Alternatively, if i prefer the appearance of the switch() statement I may use a trick like the one nospam at please dot com presents:

<?php
$mixed
= 0;
switch(
TRUE){
   case (
NULL===$mixed): //blah break;
  
case (0   ===$mixed): //etc. break;
}
?>

code till dawn! mark meves!
up
4
lchanady at gmail dot com
4 years ago
Something fairly simple (and maybe obvious) that I didn't see mentioned is that the default case WILL be executed even if the switched variable does not exist or is undefined.

For example:

<?php

$a
= "abc";
$b = "def";

switch(
$c){
    case
"a":
        echo
"a";
        break;
    case
"b":
        echo
"b";
        break;
    default:
        echo
"default";
        break;
}

?>

Will output: default

Even though $c was never declared or defined, the default case will still be executed rather than PHP throwing an error.
up
1
chernyshevsky at hotmail dot com
12 years ago
Be very careful when you're using text strings as cases. If the variable supplied to switch() is an integer, the cases would be converted to integer before the comparison is made (usually to zero). The following snippet prints "hello".

<?php
$a
= 0;
switch(
$a) {
case
'Hello': echo "Hello";
break;
}
?>
up
2
hamiltont at gmail dot com
5 years ago
Example of default NOT included as the last item

<?php
switch(5) {
  case
1:
    echo
"1";
    break;
  case
2:
  default:
    echo
"2, default";
    break;
  case
3;
    echo
"3";
    break;
}
?>

Outputs '2,default'

very useful if you want your cases to be presented in a logical order in the code (as in, not saying case 1, case 3, case 2/default) and your cases are very long so you do not want to repeat the entire case code at the bottom for the default

Hamy
up
2
richard
5 years ago
Just a word of warning about using switch don't try and compare variables that contain numbers with strings like so:

<?php
$i
=0;

switch(
$i)
{
    case
'TEST': print "Test";break;
    case
0: print "0";break;
}
?>

The output will be: Test and not 0.
up
1
Ukuser
5 years ago
Again, just to re-iterate, if you supply 0 as the switched element, only the first statement will run if the comparison is with text.

<?php

$in
= array('first',0,"second");

foreach (
$in as $a){
  switch (
$a){
    case
"first": print "first<br>"; break;
    case
"second": print "second<br>"; break;
  }
}

?>

This is annoying if you're using an array where you've got key's which could be text or numbers, so I'm using the suggested idea of:

<?php

switch (true){
  case (
$a==="first"): print "first<br>"; break;
  case (
$a==="second"): print "second<br>"; break;
}

?>

The reason for this as mentioned on http://uk3.php.net/ternary is that: "If you compare an integer with a string, the string is converted to a number. If you compare two numerical strings, they are compared as integers. These rules also apply to the switch statement." Effectively it's saying if ($a=="first") which becomes does ($a (0) == 0) which is yes.

In my example this mean't a date had a regular expression of an email applied to it which didnt help!
up
1
mr at bwsolution dot de
4 years ago
"loose comparison" means that switch won't check the type.
switch will only compare values:
<?php
if('a string' == 0) echo 'a string is 0' . PHP_EOL;
if(
'a string' === 0) echo 'but you will never see this' . PHP_EOL;
switch(
0){
    case
'a string': echo 'a string' . PHP_EOL;
    case
'another string': echo 'another string' . PHP_EOL;
}

if(
'a string' == true) echo 'a string is TRUE' . PHP_EOL;
if(
'a string' === true) echo 'but you will never see this' . PHP_EOL;
switch(
true){
    case
'a string': echo 'a string' . PHP_EOL;
    case
'another string': echo 'another string' . PHP_EOL;
}
?>

will output:
a string is 0
a string
another string
a string is TRUE
a string
another string
up
1
hackajar yahoo com
4 years ago
Apparently you need to be extra careful with "0" (zero) in your case statements when mixing int and string values:

switch($key) {
     case 0: echo "only if I am zero";break;
     case 1: echo "I'm one";break;
     case "E1": echo "Why don't you output me?";break;
     default: echo "No value Found";
}

Switch will be convinced that you mean "0" when you really mean "E1" unless you wrap it in quotes:

switch($key) {
     case '0': echo "only if I am zero";break;
     case 1: echo "I'm one";break;
     case "E1":echo "Yay! I'm back!";break;
     default: echo "No value Found";
}

Maybe this is what they mean by "loose comparison" with True, False operators?
up
1
Anonymous
7 years ago
I could have used a swich for this, but I found that using the array was much faster.

    $action = $_GET['action'];

    $pages = array
    (
      'edit'   => './edit.php',
      'search' => './search.php'
    );

    if(strlen($pages[$action]) > 0)
    {
      require $pages[$action];
    }
    else
    {
      require './default.php';
    }
up
2
druellan at sfidastudios dot com
2 months ago
Be careful if you have mixed types of values in the switch statement. Explicitly cast your variables where possible to avoid mismatch:

<?php
$var
= 0;

// This match case #1
// switch ( $var )

// This works as expected
switch ( (string)$var )
{
  case
"0string":
    echo
"0string match";
    break;
}
?>
up
2
paz at spiralon dot com
12 years ago
In case : ) it helps someone, I was able to clean up some hairball code by using nested switches (didn't see it mentioned here).  Thanks to all those who are writing examples - I love this site!

<?php
$string_match
="second";
switch (
$string_match) {
case
"first":
case
"second":
case
"third":
    print
"<H3>Something for all three</H3><br>";
    switch (
$string_match) {
      case
"first":
      print
"something for first only";
      break;
      case
"second":
      case
"third":
      print
"something for the other two";
      break;
    }
break;
default:
print
"<H3>no match</H3>";
}
?>
up
0
Anonymous
2 years ago
Switch usage for make some actions with all of cases

<?php
$out
= ' ';
for (
$i=1;$i<10:$i++) {
   switch (
$i) {
      case
true: $out .= 'test_';
      case
1:
      case
2:
      case
3: $out .= $i;
      default:
$out .= ' ';
   }
}
echo
$out;
?>

That sample out:

" test_1 test_2 test_3 "
up
0
Bas Vijfwinkel
3 years ago
If you want to avoid problems with loose comparison and strings in case statements (0 matching the first string case), you can use an explicit string cast in the switch statement:

switch((string)$switchkey) {...}

If $switchkey is 0 then the switch statement will either jump to the 'default' case or execute nothing at all (if there is no 'default' case present).

<?php

$switchkey
= 0;

if(
'a string' == $switchkey) echo 'a string is 0' . PHP_EOL;
if(
'a string' === $switchkey) echo 'but you will never see this' . PHP_EOL;

switch(
$switchkey)
{
    case
'a string': echo 'switch string test without explicit cast:'.$switchkey.' is a string (this is not what we want to see)' . PHP_EOL;break;
    case
'another string': echo 'switch string test without explicit cast: '.$switchkey.' is another string' . PHP_EOL;break;
    default: echo
'switch string test without explicit cast: default :'.$switchkey.' is somethign else (this is the correct choice)' . PHP_EOL;break;
}
switch((string)
$switchkey)
{
    case
'a string': echo 'switch string test with explicit cast:'.$switchkey.' is a string (this is not what we want to see)' . PHP_EOL;break;
    case
'another string': echo 'switch string test with explicit cast: '.$switchkey.' is another string' . PHP_EOL;break;
    default: echo
'switch string test with explicit cast: default :'.$switchkey.' is something else (this is the correct choice)' . PHP_EOL;break;
}

$switchkey = true;

if(
'a string' == $switchkey) echo 'a string is TRUE' . PHP_EOL;
if(
'a string' === $switchkey) echo 'but you will never see this' . PHP_EOL;

switch(
$switchkey)
{
    case
'a string': echo 'Switch boolean test without explicit cast:'.$switchkey.' is a string (this is not what we want to see)' . PHP_EOL;break;
    case
'another string': echo 'Switch boolean test without explicit cast: '.$switchkey.' is another string' . PHP_EOL;break;
    default : echo
'Switch boolean test : default without explicit cast: '.$switchkey.' is something else (this is the correct choice)' . PHP_EOL;break;
}
switch((string)
$switchkey)
{
    case
'a string': echo 'Switch boolean test with explicit cast:'.$switchkey.' is a string (this is not what we want to see)' . PHP_EOL;break;
    case
'another string': echo 'Switch boolean test with explicit cast: '.$switchkey.' is another string' . PHP_EOL;break;
    default : echo
'Switch boolean test  with explicit cast: default:s '.$switchkey.' is something else (this is the correct choice)' . PHP_EOL;break;
}

?>

The script will output :

a string is 0
switch string test without explicit cast:0 is a string (this is not what we want to see)
switch string test with explicit cast: default :0 is something else (this is the correct choice)
a string is TRUE
Switch boolean test without explicit cast:1 is a string (this is not what we want to see)
Switch boolean test with explicit cast: default:s 1 is something else (this is the correct choice)
up
1
ezekiel at superquenelles dot com
10 years ago
In reply to Alex Fung :
The following code doesn't work :

<?php
$x
= 18;
$y = 6;

switch (
$x) {
   case ((
$y * 4) || (9 * 3)):
       echo
"Member";
       break;
   default:
       echo
"Not a member";
}
?>

Why :
<design at hyperoptix dot com> want to test if $x == $y*4 or $x == 9*3 ($x == (($y*4)||(9*3))
However the case statement evaluate the value of (($y*4)||(9*3)) that is always true because 9*3=27 (!=0)
That's why this code always return true when $x != 0.
The correct code would be :

<?php
$x
= 18;
$y = 6;

switch (
$x) {
   case ((
$y * 4)):
   case ((
9*3)):
        echo
"Member";
        break;
   default:
       echo
"Not a member";
}
?>

Boolean logic work inside case statement, you just need to know that the expression in the case statement is first evaluated then compared with the evaluated value in the switch statement.
up
0
ben dot lancaster at holler dot co dot uk
5 years ago
Following on from bensphpnetemail at supernaut dot org's post, it would seem that 'continue' doesn't really continue at all. Consider the following:

<?php
$foo
= 'bar';
$bar = true;

switch(
$foo)
{
    case
'bar':
        if(
$bar)
        {
            continue;
        }
        echo
'$bar is false';
        break;

    case
'bar':
    case
'foo':
        echo
'$bar is true, or $foo is foo';
        break;
   
    default:
        echo
"You shouldnt ever get here";
        break;
}

?>

I would expect the above to output "$bar is true, or $foo is foo", but it doesn't output anything. The continue statement acts as a break and stops evaluating the rest of the matching cases.

Instead, you should issue a 'break' statement conditionally to achieve the desired result.
up
0
Hayley Watson
6 years ago
Something not mentioned in the documentation itself, and only touched on momentarily in these notes, is that the default: case need not be the last clause in the switch.
<?php
for($i=0; $i<8; ++$i)
{
    echo
$i,"\t";
    switch(
$i)
    {
    case
1: echo "One"; break;
    case
2:
    default: echo
"Thingy"; break;
    case
3:
    case
4: echo "Three or Four"; break;
    case
5: echo "Five"; break;
    }
    echo
"\n";
}
?>
Outputs what you'd expect, namely
0       Thingy
1       One
2       Thingy
3       Three or Four
4       Three or Four
5       Five
6       Thingy
7       Thingy
with case 2 and the default both producing the same result ("Thingy"); strictly speaking, the case 2 clause is completely empty and control just falls straight through. The same result could have been achieved with
<?php
switch($i)
{
    case
1: echo "One"; break;
    case
3:
    case
4: echo "Three or Four"; break;
    case
5: echo "Five"; break;
    default: echo
"Thingy"; break;
}
?>
But if "case 2" represented a fairly common case (other than "everything else"), then it would be better to declare it explicitly, not only because it saves time by not having to test EVERY other case first  (in the current example, PHP finds 'case 2' in the first switch in two tests, but in the second switch it has to make four tests before giving up and going with the default) but also because someone (perhaps yourself in a few months' time) will be reading the code and expecting to see it handled. Listing it explicitly aids comprehension
up
0
juraj5
7 years ago
In response to 'i luv spam',

when you enter 07, you tell PHP to interpret a number as an octal number (much like '0x' for hex numbers). Octal numbering system uses only 8 digits, i.e. 0-7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octal

The number 8 does not exist in octal numbering system. The comparison works because the octal numbers 0 to 7 have identical counterparts in decimal system.

So, in order to get a number compared as decimal 8, you would have to enter 010 in the case.

BTW this behavior obviously isn't specific to switch, it's a part of PHP.

(I personally stumbled into this when trying to make my code nicely indented while declaring an array)
up
0
sneskid at hotmail dot com
7 years ago
In regard to what dohpaz at kennethpaul dot com wrote.

If you ever have time you may want to test out having a premade associative array with the required elements eaqualing the needed value. Then assign the value based on the array element.

in dohpaz's month example it would look like this:
<?php
$arr_month
= array(
'January' => 1,
'February' => 2,
'March' => 3,
'April' => 4,
'May' => 5,
'June' => 6,
'July' => 7,
'August' => 8,
'September' => 9,
'October' => 10,
'November' => 11,
'December' => 12);
foreach(
$arr_month as $k => $v) {$arr_month[substr($k,0,3)] = $v;} // autogen a 3 letter version

//note that the overall size will be 23 because May will only exist once

$month = 'Jan';
$month = $arr_months[$month];
echo
$month; // outputs: 1
?>

It beats a switch in this case.

I did some benchmarking.
The array system is faster than the switch system.

Here were my average time results of 1000 itterations of assigning the numeric value to the month.
The value was randomized between each itteration (this was not added to the benchmark value), so each method was simulated with various data to stress different points.

array:
'avg' => 1.09958648682E-6
switch:
'avg' => 4.32157516479E-6
switch (true):
'avg' => 6.90913200378E-6

Contrary to what dohpaz suggested I found that a normal switch was faster than a switch(true) version.

I repeated these test several times to take into acount server load variations. The ratios were always consistent.

The array way is notably faster.
up
0
scott at firefallpro dot com
8 years ago
It's has already been mentioned indirectly in a few posts, but it is important to realize that switch statements evaluate each case with the "==" operator by default. This can lead to unexpected results when comparing strings to integers, because PHP will convert the string to an integer. In many cases this means a string can be equivalent to the integer 0.

Example:
<?php
$x
= 0;

switch(
$x) {
case
"a":
    echo
"a";
    break;
case
"b":
    echo
"b";
    break;
default
    echo
"default";
}
?>

The result will be an "a" echoed out. What PHP does in this instance, is once it realizes that it's attempting to compare string ("a") to an integer (0), it converts "a" into an integer which ends up satisfying the first case.

The rules for string conversion into integers is available at:
http://us3.php.net/manual/en/language.types.string.php

The easiest way to combat this issue is to force type comparison by using the "===" operator. This makes PHP forego the string to integer conversion.

Example:
<?php
switch(true) {
case
$x === "a":
    echo
"a";
    break;
case
$x === "b":
    echo
"b";
    break;
default
    echo
"default";
}
?>

Or the switch input can be type-casted to always be a string, etc.

Also note that even though a conditional statement needs to be explicitly set in each case to gain expected behavior, the switch can still execute faster then an "ifelse" block because PHP will not continue to evaluate conditions once a case has been satisfied.
up
0
ant at loadtrax dot com
9 years ago
This caught me out. The number '6' when compared with the string '6b' returns true. The solution is to either typecast the compare  -  ie, " switch ((string)$type): "  or to make sure $type is a string (eg $type="6")

<?
$type=6;
switch ($type):
    case "6b":
        print "6b: ";
        print $type;
    break;
    case "6":
        print "6: ";
        print $type;
    break;
endswitch;
?>
up
0
ach aat bitfabrik doot de
9 years ago
So instead of writing the code shown below it would have to be like this:

<?php
$x
= 18;
$y = 6;

switch (
$x) {
   case (((
$y * 4) || (9 * 3))?$x:false):
       echo
"Member";
       break;
   default:
       echo
"Not a member";
}
?>

So now the case expression contains an if statement in simplified notation which either returns the value of $x if the expression is true (so the case matches) or false, if the expression was false (so the case does not match).
Be aware that it only works if $x never actually is "false" because then it would match in either case. So the "false" in the above code should always be any random value which is not a possible value for $x.
up
0
gregory dot mccoy at pleasedontspam dot cafeoui dot net
9 years ago
In the post:
----------------------------------------------------
design at hyperoptix dot com
18-Feb-2004 12:46
Boolean logic does not work inside case statements:

<?php
$x
= 18;
$y = 6;

switch (
$x) {
   case ((
$y * 4) || (9 * 3)):
       echo
"Member";
       break;
   default:
       echo
"Not a member";
}
?>

echoes "Member".
----------------------------------------------------
there were many responses but all seem to miss the point.  You cannot mix apples and oranges.  The "switch($x)" establishes that this "switch" statement will be a Relational syntax while the "case" qualifier uses a Logical syntax.  There must be a match.  Either change "switch($x)" to "switch(true)" or change "case(($y * 4) || (9 * 3)):" to resolve to a value.

The syntax of the original post is like a cop that says, "I want all of your answers to reflect truth.  So, are you eighteen?"  The respondent says, " 4 x 4 or 11 + 5".  Need I say more?
up
0
Derek Ethier
9 years ago
A word of caution around the order used for the case/default controls.  I notice that a lot of people do not break; the default section and the following could lead to incorrect results when run.

$a = "lowercase";

switch ( $a ) {
  default:
    $a = strtoupper( $a );
    print $a . "<br />";

  case ( 'LOWERCASE' ):
    print $a . "<br />";
    break;
}

Result:
LOWERCASE
LOWERCASE

Placing a break; in the default control will result in:
LOWERCASE

.. as expected.  Also, placing the default section at the bottom (as in an else control) will also display the correct result.
up
0
Bachsau
9 years ago
Be carefull: If you want to test the return of a function, you have to use switch, because if you use 'if' and 'ifelse', your function will be executed every time again.

For example if use use the following construct:

if(file_get_contents('file.htm', 0) == 'typ1') {
     // Do one thing
}
ifelse(file_get_contents('file.htm', 0) == 'typ2') {
     // Do the second thing
}
ifelse(file_get_contents('file.htm', 0) == 'typ3') {
     // Do the third thing
}

The file will be requested 3 times!!!

If you use the following:

switch (file_get_contents('file.htm', 0)) {
     case 'typ1': // Do one thing
     break;
     case 'typ2': // Do the second thing
     break;
     case 'typ3': // Do the third thing
}

The file will be requested only once!!!
up
0
php dot net dot 1 at yogelements dot com
10 years ago
Declaring a variable (actually an array) as static w/in a switch{} spun my wool for a while:
don't:
<?
function ss() {
    switch ("bug") {
        case "bug" :
           static $test = "xyz";
           break;
        default :
           static $test = "abc";
    }
echo $test;
}
ss(); //abc
?>
do:
<?
function tt() {
    static $test;
    switch ("fix") {
        case "fix" :
           $test = "xyz";
           break;
        default :
           $test = "abc";
    }
echo $test;
}
tt(); // xyz
?>
up
0
gmgiles at pacbell dot net
10 years ago
Did you know that switch() and case() can also accomodate things like basic math calculations and counter incrementing? They do. In this example, I use a switch statement (which is inside of a while loop) to alternate the background color of a table row. It gives me a cool spool-printer-paper effect.

<?php
$rows_per_color
= 5// change bgcolor every 5 rows
switch($ctr++) {
    case
0:
       
$bgcolor = "#ffffff";
        break;
    case (
$rows_per_color):
       
$bgcolor = "#ff0000";
        break;               
    case (
$rows_per_color * 2):
       
$bgcolor = "#ffffff";
       
$ctr = 1;
        break;       
}
?>

As you can see, I increment $ctr by 1 in the switch() itself, and the final case() does a simple calculation. Simple, but powerful. [Remember, the above example is inside of a while() loop... each time it iterates, switch increments $ctr.]
up
0
havar at henriksen dot nu
11 years ago
Remember, that you also could use functions in a switch.
For example, if you need to use regular expressions in a switch:

<?php
$browserName
= 'mozilla';
switch (
$browserName) {
  case
'opera':
    echo
'opera';
  break;
  case (
preg_match("/Mozilla( Firebird)?|phoenix/i", $browserName)?$browserName:!$browserName):
    echo
"Mozilla or Mozilla Firebird";
  break;
  case
'konqueror':
    echo
'Konqueror';
  break;
  default:
    echo
'Default';
  break;
}
?>

or you could just use a regular expression for everything:

<?php
$uri
= 'http://www.example.com';
switch (
true) {
  case
preg_match("/$http(s)?/i", $uri, $matches):
    echo
$uri . ' is an http/https uri...';
  break;
  case
preg_match("/$ftp(s)?/i", $uri, $matches):
    echo
$uri . ' is an ftp/ftps uri...';
  break;
  default:
    echo
'default';
  break;
}
?>
up
0
shawn at evilest dot net
11 years ago
You can also nest switch statements inside case statements:

<?php
  
// Set argument handlers
   
$argv = explode(",", urldecode(getenv('QUERY_STRING')));
   
$argc = array_shift($argv);
   
$argd = array_shift($argv);
   
$arge = array_shift($argv);
?>

   // Begin switching

<?php
   
switch ($argc) {
        case
'home': {
             print(
'This is $argc, home case.');
            break;
        }
        case
'subsection': {
                switch (
$argd) {
                     case
'links': {
                            switch(
$arge) {
                                case
'display': {
                                print(
'This is $arge, subsection,links,display case.');
                                break;
                                }
                           }
                    }
                }
        }
    }
?>
up
0
rmunn at pobox dot com
11 years ago
In answer to njones at fredesign dot com, what you're seeing is the way the switch statement is supposed to work. The switch statement evaluates the cases, top to bottom, until it finds the first one that matches the value being switch()ed on. So, for example, if you had:

<?php
switch(2) {
case
1: echo "One\n"; break;
case
2: echo "Two\n"; break;
case
3: echo "Three\n"; break;
case
2: echo "Two again\n"; break;
}
?>

Only "Two" would get echoed. "Two again" would NOT get echoed, because once the first case matches, the rest of them do NOT get evaluated. As soon as a matching case is found, the statements starting at that case get executed until the first break, then control flows out the bottom of the switch block.
up
0
gray dot quinn at catch-e dot com dot au
12 years ago
To get the conditional statement to work for the above example use this:

<?php
$chr
= substr($a,$i,1);
switch (
TRUE) {

case
$chr == "" || $chr == "" || $chr == "" || $chr == "":
$a = str_replace(substr($a,$i,1),"a",$a);
break;

case
$chr == "" || $chr == "" || $chr == "":
$a = str_replace(substr($a,$i,1),"e",$a);
break;
?>

}
up
-1
phpmanual at nos-pam dot sadlittleboy dot com
10 years ago
Regarding bishop's comment below, although using:
   switch($bug === 0 ? '' : $bug) {
may work, ( and although I do like the ternary operator, :) it might be more intuitive/readable to use this instead:
   switch( (string)$bug ) {
which typecasts the variable to a string to ensure that "0" will be handled correctly.
up
-1
jon
10 years ago
In response to the entry by "kriek at jonkriek dot com", I think you would probably be better of doing this:
<?php
   
// ensure $_GET['go'] is set, an integer, and not 0
    // then, set nav number; default to 1
   
$nav = ( isset($_GET['go']) && (intval($_GET['go']) == $_GET['go']) && $_GET['go'] ) ?
       
intval($_GET['go']) : 1;

   
// format navigation string and include
   
include(sprintf("Page%02d.php",$nav));   
?>

... as oppposed to the switch setup you recommended, which is limited to the number of cases you specify...
up
-1
PeterC at (spamme)rm-rfsplat dot com
12 years ago
Along the lines of using expressions in switch statements.  I came across some code which wrapped switch statements in 'if' blocks like so...
if (isset($var) {
    switch($var) {
        ....
   

But I found the following a little cleaner.

switch ( isset($var) ? $var : defaultValue ) {
...
up
-1
theimp at iinet dot net dot au
4 years ago
It's easy to abuse the switch syntax to do some very useful things. As this example will show, the possibilities can go beyond even Duff's Device-style craziness (not that this example is nearly as clever as Duff's Device, but it demonstrates how you can do certain things other than simply the increment/decrement/assignment that's possible in C).

Fundamentally, this works mostly due to the fact that, from the point of view of the assembler/interpreter, a switch block is hardly any different from a bunch of GOTO labels and  if()  evaluations. But, like an  if() evaluation, the line of a case: statement is evaluated as an expression. So, in this case, we can perform an assignment and match the result of that assignment, because the return value of an assignment is the data that was assigned (and not the value of the variable it was assigned to, as you might expect).

So far, this is not actually amazing, even if it is a bit unintuitive. From a language point-of-view, it would be the same as an  if($var = "string")  statement which is using an assignment (=) rather than a comparison (==) operator. When you look at the pre-processing optimization, because a normal assignment of $var = "string" will always equal "string", it makes sense to have the result of that expression simply be equal to the right side of the expression (the right side is used rather than the left to let the assembler/interpreter work faster, on account of how they traditionally simply change the memory location for the assigned variable rather than copy the memory around unnecessarily).

Where this becomes more interesting is where, in PHP, you have language constructs that behave like functions but are used like statements. An  $array[] = "string"  expression is actually a language construct that just happens to behave a lot like a function, but you use it in the same way that you use an assignment expression, and like an expression, it always evaluates to the right side of the expression; in this case,  "string"  and not  array() .

The assembler/interpreter can't use the right side of the expression as a shortcut for the result of a function, so you can't use functions in this way in a case statement. You also can't get around this limit on calling functions from the case line by using variable functions, because they are used in the same way as functions.

But imagine what you could do with other language constructs, like eval() or include() !

Consider the following:

<?php
function flavor($type = null)
{
    switch (
$type) {
       
/* Note the isolation of break; statements and the fact that default: is at the top */
       
default:
           
$type = null;
        case
$array[] = "chocolate":
            if (
$type != null) {
               
$array = array($type);
                break;
            }
        case
$array[] = "strawberry":
            if (
$type != null) {
               
$array = array($type);
                break;
            }
        case
$array[] = "vanilla":
            if (
$type != null) {
               
$array = array($type);
                break;
            }
    }
    if ( (
count($array) != 1) ) {
        return
"Flavors available: " . implode(", ", $array);
    } else {
        return
"Flavor selected: " . implode(", ", $array);
    }
}

echo
flavor() . "<br>";
/* Flavors available: chocolate, strawberry, vanilla */

echo flavor("banana") . "<br>";
/* Flavors available: chocolate, strawberry, vanilla */

echo flavor("chocolate") . "<br>";
/* Flavor selected: chocolate */
?>

What makes this example useful is that you don't need a variable somewhere that contains the available options (even within the function itself), so to support new options, you only ever have to change the code to add the new option - you don't need to update some variable somewhere that controls whether or not it works or whether or not people can tell that there's a new option.
up
-1
Anonymous
2 years ago
Regarding [php_net at mcdragonsoftware dot com 17-Jun-2011 09:53]; the elegant function and syntax provided for an "inline switch" statement is more readable and about 25% faster than this alternative (that uses existing builtin functions), which produces the same result:

<?php echo array_pop(array_slice(array( 'rock', 'paper', 'scissors' ), --$roll, 1)); ?>
up
-1
bensphpnetemail at supernaut dot org
13 years ago
It's obvious, but might still bear explicit mention that you can conditionally execute the BREAK statement in order to allow a CASE to fall through to the next CASE. 

e.g.:-> Here, CASE 1 will fall through and the DEFAULT CASE statements will also be executed unless $somevar is true.

<?php
switch ($i) {
    case
0:
        print
"i equals 0";
        break;
    case
1:
        print
"i equals 1";
        if (
$somevar) {
             break;
             }
    default;
       echo
'Some Default Statements';
        break;
}
?>

Cheers,
Ben Nardone
up
-1
stever at ashomecare dot com
7 years ago
Just a reminder: there may be easier ways to manipulate _long_ lists of data instead of using switches.

function getChineseZodiac($year){
 
  // Chinese Zodiac Animals
  $animals = Array
  (
    'Monkey',  // Years 0, 12, 1200, 2004...
    'Rooster',
    'Dog',
    'Boar',
    'Rat',
    'Ox',
    'Tiger',
    'Rabit',
    'Dragon',
    'Snake',
    'Horse',
    'Lamb'
  );

  // Number of animals and years in a calendar rotation
  $numAnimals = count($animals);

  // Years left until full rotation of calender
  $yearOffset= round($year) % $numAnimals;
 
  return $animals[$yearOffset];
 
}

Of course this is a really generic function, we're just finding how many years away from a full 12 year rotation the current year is.
up
-1
Drake
7 years ago
Also,
when using switch for mode selecting on websites like:

switch($_GET['mode']) {
  case "gallery":
    //code
  break;
  case "news":
    //code
  break;
  case "stuff":
    //code
  break;
  default, etc etc
}

Will NOT trigger the string == 0 bug, because $_GET automatically parse anything passed to them as strings.
(same applies for all browser variables: SESSION, POST etc)

so passing:
mode=0
into the address bar is the same as:
$_GET['mode'] = "0"; //not $_GET['mode'] = 0;

thought it may help.
up
-1
2mareks (at) gmail (dot) com
7 years ago
In reply to earlier comment, "switch"- I found this to be one of the best ways to interpret 'actions'. Simply create a new instance of Handler_action before including any content source files. This is a highly stripped version of the class.

The real one I created handles (and secures) input for $_GET and $_POST, creates a 'permission' array that only allows certain actions to be called by non-admins, and creates handy little diagnostic messages that can be displayed upon redirecting.

On that note, the beauty in this class really shines in the simple redirect. You wont be left with ugly URLs like, "http://www.domain.com/path/to/script.php?action=blah&var1=123". Rather, you will be left with something like "http://www.domain.com/path/to/script.php"- helps protect some of the site by not showing any vulnerabilities in URLs.

Also, this class keeps all actions organized neatly by directly passing $_GET vars to the actions through function parameters.

<?php
 
class Handler_action {
    function
__construct( ){
     
//Add code here to secure attacks through $_GET or use $_POST
     
$action = $_GET["action"];
 
     
//$actions_index conventions:
      //'action_name' => array( 'arg1', 'arg2', 'etc', ['/redirect/to/path' | NULL ] )
     
$actions_index = array(
       
'create' => array( $_GET['newVar1'], $_GET['newVar2'], '/home.php' ),
       
'edit' => array( $_GET['id'], $_GET['otherVar'], '/home.php' ),
       
'delete' => array( $_GET['id'], '/other_script.php' )
      );
             
      if(
$action && array_key_exists( $action, $actions_index ) ){
       
$redirect_path = array_pop( $actions_index[$action] );
       
call_user_func_array( array( &$this, $action ), $actions_index[$action] );
        if(
$redirect_path )
         
header( "Location: http://www.domain.com{$redirect_path}" );
      }
    }

   
//being defining actions now
   
function create( $new_var1, $new_var2 ){
 
     
//code...
 
   
}
    function
edit( $id, $other_var ){
 
     
//code...
 
   
}
    function
delete( $id ){
 
     
//code...
 
   
}
  }
?>
up
-1
jonybd at yahoo dot com
9 years ago
/*
    Have one value need to deal with currency
    - follow as example
*/
while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($v_Result,MYSQL_NUM)) {
    $v_BAL = $row[1]/10000;
   
    switch (TRUE){

        case ($v_BAL <= 0):            //less then 0 , -0
            echo $v_BAL;
        break;
                   
        case ($v_BAL <= 10 AND $v_BAL >= 1):    //less then 10 and greater then 1
            echo $v_BAL;
        break;
                                       
        default:                //default
            echo $v_BAL;
        break;
    }
}
up
-1
Bruno Feu
9 years ago
You can solve the problem by just writing the following piece of code:

<?php
$x
= 18;
$y = 6;

switch (
$x) {
   case (
$y * 4):
   case (
9 * 3):
       echo
"Member";
       break;
   default:
       echo
"Not a member";
}
?>
up
-1
(cgibbard) student math uwaterloo ca
11 years ago
Just in reply to the comment about 2 digit numbers: something octal certainly is going on. Integer literals prefixed with a "0", like in C and several other languages, are treated as octal. Similarly, integer literals prefixed with "0x" are treated as hexadecimal. Seeing as this is the case, 08 and 09 are not valid integer literals. It turns out that php treats them as 0 (it would probably be better to fail with an error message, but it doesn't). Bottom line? Don't prefix numbers with 0 in code unless you mean octal. Format them as you print them with printf, like so: printf("%02u", $my_unsigned_int); or if you will, use sprintf to get a string representation rather than printing on stdout.
up
-1
jason at devnetwork dot net
11 years ago
It should be pointed out that this:

<?php

$var
= 0;

switch (
$var )
{
    case
"something":
       
$foo = "Broken";
        break;
    default:
       
$foo = "Okay";
        break;
}

echo
$foo;

?>

Will print out "Broken".  It's not broken, because in PHP, when an Integer and a String are compared, the string is == 0.  So 0 == "something".  However, this is not apparent.  switch() does not do type checking.
up
-1
theonly dot mcseven at gmx dot net
11 years ago
working a bit around with it I found out that it is not possible to
compare the variable with two different values in one step like this
(system running a w2k server, apache2.0.43 & php430):

<?php
switch ($myvar) {
case (
"foo" || "bar"): //do something
break;
case (
"other"): //do another thing
break;
default:
}
?>

rather use:

<?php
switch ($myvar) {
case (
"foo"):
case (
"bar"): //do something
break;
case (
"other"): //do another thing
break;
default:
}
?>
up
-1
x@x
13 years ago
often you will have to perform multiple actions in sequence, but this sequence must be broken once one of them detects a stop condition (such as an error, when validating form request variables).
One way is to use:

if (check1()
&& check2()
&& check3()
) valid();
else error();

But when the sequence is long and must reordered, this can be errorprone because not all line of check have the same syntax (imagine that you want to comment one of them).

Another way is to rewrite it as:

check1() and
check2() and
check3() and
...
valid() or
error();

The above syntax does not fit well when the valid() code must be several statements.
An alternative syntax can be:

switch (false) {
case check1():
case check2():
case check3():
  error();
  break;
default:
  valid();
}

This last equivalent sample show you that each case expressions is evaluated, until one of them evaluates to a value equal (==) to the switch expression. Above, the error() code will only be called if one of the check evaluates to false. And the valid() code will only be evaluated only if the switch reach the default, which means that none of the above check returned false...
up
-4
bishop
11 years ago
As jason at devnetwork dot net and others have pointed out, using switch() when you wish to compare against strings can be dangerous:

<?php
$bug
= 0;
switch (
$bug) {
    case
'fly':
        echo
'flies buzz';
        break;

    case
'mantis':
        echo
'mantes pray';
        break;

    default:
        echo
'swat, splat, you are dead';
        break;
}
?>

Will print "flies buzz", NOT "swat, splat, you are dead".
Remember PHP says that 'fly' == 0, or in general string == 0 is true.

Anyway, avoid that with:

<?php
$bug
= 0;
switch (
$bug === 0 ? '' : $bug) {
    case
'fly':
        echo
'flies buzz';
        break;

    case
'mantis':
        echo
'mantes pray';
        break;

    default:
        echo
'swat, splat, you are dead';
        break;
}
?>

Prints out what you expect:

Swat
Splat
You are dead

P.S.: that's an empty string (single quote single quote), not a spurious double quote.
up
-4
i luv spam
11 years ago
Noticed some odd switch behavior worth mentioning:

Switching on a variable set as $var="08" and forgetting the quotes within the case results in different behavior depending on the two digit number the variable is set to.

For "01" to "07", using a case like
  case 01:
the case is triggered.

For "08" or "09" the case is skipped.

For "10" to "12" the case is triggered.

Looks like something octal may be going on.

Anyway, not a problem once the case is changed to:
  case "08":
as it should have been from the start.  Just odd.
To Top