fnmatch

(PHP 4 >= 4.3.0, PHP 5)

fnmatchRepère un fichier à partir d'un masque de recherche

Description

bool fnmatch ( string $pattern , string $string [, int $flags = 0 ] )

fnmatch() vérifie si la chaîne string va passer le masque Shell pattern.

Liste de paramètres

pattern

Le masque Shell.

string

La chaîne testée. Cette fonction est particulièrement utile pour les noms de fichier, mais peut également être utilisée sur des chaînes régulières.

L'utilisateur moyen de Shell peut être familier avec les masques Shell, ou tout au moins, leurs expressions les plus simples, comme '?' et '*'. De cette façon, utiliser fnmatch() au lieu de preg_match() pour des recherches peut être plus pratique pour les non-initiés.

flags

La valeur de flags peut être une combinaison des drapeaux suivants, joins avec l' opérateur binaire OR (|).

Liste des drapeaux possibles pour fnmatch()
Flag Description
FNM_NOESCAPE Désactive l'échappement des anti-slashes.
FNM_PATHNAME Un slash dans une chaîne correspond uniquement à un slash dans le masque fourni.
FNM_PERIOD Un point en début de chaîne doit correspondre exactement à un point dans le masque fourni.
FNM_CASEFOLD Les correspondances ne tiennent pas compte de la casse. Fait parti de l'extension GNU.

Valeurs de retour

Retourne TRUE s'il y a des résultats, FALSE sinon.

Historique

Version Description
5.3.0 Cette fonction est maintenant disponible sous Windows.

Exemples

Exemple #1 Vérifier le nom d'une couleur avec un masque Shell

<?php
if (fnmatch("*gr[ae]y"$color)) {
  echo 
"des formes de gris ...";
}
?>

Notes

Avertissement

Actuellement, cette fonction n'est pas disponible pour les systèmes non-POSIX, à l'exception de Windows.

Voir aussi

  • glob() - Recherche des chemins qui vérifient un masque
  • preg_match() - Expression rationnelle standard
  • sscanf() - Analyse une chaîne à l'aide d'un format
  • printf() - Affiche une chaîne de caractères formatée
  • sprintf() - Retourne une chaîne formatée

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User Contributed Notes 9 notes

up
1
jk at ricochetsolutions dot com
7 years ago
soywiz's function didnt seem to work for me, but this did.

<?php
if(!function_exists('fnmatch')) {

    function
fnmatch($pattern, $string) {
        return
preg_match("#^".strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.'))."$#i", $string);
    }
// end

} // end if
?>
up
1
me at rowanlewis dot com
3 years ago
Here's a definitive solution, which supports negative character classes and the four documented flags.

<?php
   
   
if (!function_exists('fnmatch')) {
       
define('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
       
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
       
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
       
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
       
        function
fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
            return
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags);
        }
    }
   
    function
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
       
$modifiers = null;
       
$transforms = array(
           
'\*'    => '.*',
           
'\?'    => '.',
           
'\[\!'    => '[^',
           
'\['    => '[',
           
'\]'    => ']',
           
'\.'    => '\.',
           
'\\'    => '\\\\'
       
);
       
       
// Forward slash in string must be in pattern:
       
if ($flags & FNM_PATHNAME) {
           
$transforms['\*'] = '[^/]*';
        }
       
       
// Back slash should not be escaped:
       
if ($flags & FNM_NOESCAPE) {
            unset(
$transforms['\\']);
        }
       
       
// Perform case insensitive match:
       
if ($flags & FNM_CASEFOLD) {
           
$modifiers .= 'i';
        }
       
       
// Period at start must be the same as pattern:
       
if ($flags & FNM_PERIOD) {
            if (
strpos($string, '.') === 0 && strpos($pattern, '.') !== 0) return false;
        }
       
       
$pattern = '#^'
           
. strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), $transforms)
            .
'$#'
           
. $modifiers;
       
        return (boolean)
preg_match($pattern, $string);
    }
   
?>

This probably needs further testing, but it seems to function identically to the native fnmatch implementation.
up
1
Sinured
6 years ago
An addition to my previous note: My statement regarding the FNM_* constants was wrong. They are available on POSIX-compliant systems (in other words, if fnmatch() is defined).
up
1
theboydanny at gmail dot com
6 years ago
About the windows compat functions below:
I needed fnmatch for a application that had to work on Windows, took a look here and tested both. Jk's works for me, soywiz didn't (on WinXPSP2, PHP 5.2.3).
The only difference between them is addcslashes (soywiz) instead of preg_quote (jk). They _should_ both work, but for some reason soywiz's didn't for me. So YMMV.
However, to make JK's fnmatch() work with the example in the documentation, you also have to strtr the [ and ] in $pattern.
<?php
$pattern
= strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.', '\[' => '[', '\]' => ']'));
?>
And thanks for the functions, guys.
up
1
Sinured
6 years ago
Possible flags (scratched out of fnmatch.h):
...::...

FNM_PATHNAME:
> Slash in $string only matches slash in $pattern.

FNM_PERIOD:
> Leading period in $string must be exactly matched by period in $pattern.

FNM_NOESCAPE:
> Disable backslash escaping.

FNM_NOSYS:
> Obsolescent.

FNM_FILE_NAME:
> Alias of FNM_PATHNAME.

FNM_LEADING_DIR:
> From fnmatch.h: /* Ignore `/...' after a match.  */

FNM_CASEFOLD:
> Caseless match.

Since they’re appearing in file.c, but are not available in PHP, we’ll have to define them ourselves:
<?php
define
('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
// GNU extensions
define('FNM_FILE_NAME', FNM_PATHNAME);
define('FNM_LEADING_DIR', 8);
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
?>

I didn’t test any of these except casefold, which worked for me.
up
0
bwilcock at gmail dot com
8 months ago
fnmatch is not 100% reliable. Bug 14185 is still open and may or may not have been patched.

In certain wildcard circumstance fnmatch("*needle*", $haystack, match) returns false intermittantly

However stripos or preg returns a "find".
up
0
bernd dot ebert at gmx dot net
2 years ago
There is a problem within the  pcre_fnmatch-Function concerning backslashes. Those will be masked by preq_quote and ADDITONALLY by the strtr if FN_NOESCAPE is not set -> something like "*a(*" will finally result in "#^.*a\\(.*$#". Note the double backslash which effectively does NOT mask the "(" correctly.

Since preq_quote always matches a backslash I don't think that this'll work with using preg_quote at all.
up
0
Frederik Krautwald
7 years ago
soywiz's function still doesn't seem to work -- at least not with PHP 5.2.3 on Windows -- but jk's does.
up
0
phlipping at yahoo dot com
10 years ago
you couls also try this function that I wrote before I found fnmatch:

function WildToReg($str)
{
  $s = "";  
  for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($str); $i++)
  {
   $c = $str{$i};
   if ($c =='?')
    $s .= '.'; // any character
   else if ($c == '*')   
    $s .= '.*'; // 0 or more any characters   
   else if ($c == '[' || $c == ']')
    $s .= $c;  // one of characters within []
   else
    $s .= '\\' . $c;
  }
  $s = '^' . $s . '$';

  //trim redundant ^ or $
  //eg ^.*\.txt$ matches exactly the same as \.txt$
  if (substr($s,0,3) == "^.*")
   $s = substr($s,3);
  if (substr($s,-3,3) == ".*$")
   $s = substr($s,0,-3);
  return $s;
}

if (ereg(WildToReg("*.txt"), $fn))
  print "$fn is a text file";
else
  print "$fn is not a text file";
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