PHP Australia Conference 2015

递增/递减运算符

PHP 支持 C 风格的前/后递增与递减运算符。

Note: 递增/递减运算符不影响布尔值。递减 NULL 值也没有效果,但是递增 NULL 的结果是 1

递增/递减运算符
例子 名称 效果
++$a 前加 $a 的值加一,然后返回 $a
$a++ 后加 返回 $a,然后将 $a 的值加一。
--$a 前减 $a 的值减一, 然后返回 $a
$a-- 后减 返回 $a,然后将 $a 的值减一。

一个简单的示例脚本:

<?php
echo "<h3>Postincrement</h3>";
$a 5;
echo 
"Should be 5: " $a++ . "<br />\n";
echo 
"Should be 6: " $a "<br />\n";

echo 
"<h3>Preincrement</h3>";
$a 5;
echo 
"Should be 6: " . ++$a "<br />\n";
echo 
"Should be 6: " $a "<br />\n";

echo 
"<h3>Postdecrement</h3>";
$a 5;
echo 
"Should be 5: " $a-- . "<br />\n";
echo 
"Should be 4: " $a "<br />\n";

echo 
"<h3>Predecrement</h3>";
$a 5;
echo 
"Should be 4: " . --$a "<br />\n";
echo 
"Should be 4: " $a "<br />\n";
?>

在处理字符变量的算数运算时,PHP 沿袭了 Perl 的习惯,而非 C 的。例如,在 Perl 中 $a = 'Z'; $a++; 将把 $a 变成'AA',而在 C 中,a = 'Z'; a++; 将把 a 变成 '[''Z' 的 ASCII 值是 90,'[' 的 ASCII 值是 91)。注意字符变量只能递增,不能递减,并且只支持纯字母(a-z 和 A-Z)。递增/递减其他字符变量则无效,原字符串没有变化。

Example #1 涉及字符变量的算数运算

<?php
$i 
'W';
for (
$n=0$n<6$n++) {
    echo ++
$i "\n";
}
?>

以上例程会输出:

X
Y
Z
AA
AB
AC

递增或递减布尔值没有效果。

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User Contributed Notes 8 notes

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10
dsbeam at gmail dot com
5 years ago
When using the ++ operator by itself on a variable, ++$var is faster than $var++ and uses slightly less memory (in my experiments).  It would seem like this could be optimized in the language during runtime (if $var++ is the only thing in the whole statement, it could be treated as ++$var).

I conducted many tests (I believe to be fair), and here's one of the results:

$i++ took 8.47515535355 seconds and 2360 bytes
++$i took 7.80081486702 seconds and 2160 bytes

Here's my code.  If anyone sees a bias in it, tell me.  I conducted it many times, each time going through a loop one million iterations and doing each test 10 - 15 times (10 - 15 million uses of the ++ operator).

<?php

ini_set
( 'MAX_EXEC_TIME', 120 );
ob_start( );

$num_tests = 10;
$startFirst = $startSecond = $endFirst = $endSecond = $startFirstMemory = $endFirstMemory = $startSecondMemory = $endSecondMemory = $someVal = 0;
$times = array( '$i++' => array( 'time' => 0, 'memory' => 0 ), '++$i' => array( 'total' => 0, 'memory' => 0 ) );

for(
$j = 0; $j < $num_tests; ++$j )
{
        for(
$i = 0, $startFirstMemory = memory_get_usage( ), $startFirst = microtime( true ); $i < 10000000; $i++ ){ $someval = 2; }
       
$endFirstMemory = memory_get_usage( );
       
$endFirst = microtime( true );

        for(
$i = 0, $startSecondMemory = memory_get_usage( ), $startSecond = microtime( true ); $i < 10000000; ++$i ){ $someval = 2; }
       
$endSecondMemory = memory_get_usage( );
       
$endSecond = microtime( true );

       
$times[ '$i++' ][ $j ] = array( 'startTime' => $startFirst, 'endTime' => $endFirst, 'startMemory' => $startFirstMemory, 'endMemory' => $endFirstMemory );
       
$times[ '++$i' ][ $j ] = array( 'startTime' => $startSecond, 'endTime' => $endSecond, 'startMemory' => $startSecondMemory, 'endMemory' => $endSecondMemory );
}

for(
$i = 0; $i < $num_tests; ++$i )
{
       
$times[ '$i++' ][ 'time' ] += ( $times[ '$i++' ][ $i ][ 'endTime' ] - $times[ '$i++' ][ $i ][ 'startTime' ] );
       
$times[ '++$i' ][ 'time' ] += ( $times[ '++$i' ][ $i ][ 'endTime' ] - $times[ '++$i' ][ $i ][ 'startTime' ] );
       
$times[ '$i++' ][ 'memory' ] += ( $times[ '$i++' ][ $i ][ 'endMemory' ] - $times[ '$i++' ][ $i ][ 'startMemory' ] );
       
$times[ '++$i' ][ 'memory' ] += ( $times[ '++$i' ][ $i ][ 'endMemory' ] - $times[ '++$i' ][ $i ][ 'startMemory' ] );
}

echo
'There were ' . $num_tests . ' tests conducted, here\'s the totals<br /><br />
$i++ took '
. $times[ '$i++' ][ 'time' ] . ' seconds and ' . $times[ '$i++' ][ 'memory' ] . ' bytes<br />
++$i took '
. $times[ '++$i' ][ 'time' ] . ' seconds and ' . $times[ '++$i' ][ 'memory' ] . ' bytes';

ob_end_flush( );

?>

Try it yourself, ;)
up
8
hartmut at php dot net
2 years ago
Note that

$a="9D9"; var_dump(++$a);   => string(3) "9E0"

but counting onwards from there

$a="9E0"; var_dump(++$a);   => float(10)

this is due to "9E0" being interpreted as a string representation of the float constant 9E0 (or 9e0), and thus evalutes to 9 * 10^0 = 9 (in a float context)
up
3
cleong at letstalk dot com
12 years ago
Note that the ++ and -- don't convert a boolean to an int. The following code will loop forever.

function a($start_index) {
for($i = $start_index; $i < 10; $i++) echo "\$i = $i\n";
}

a(false);

This behavior is, of course, very different from that in C. Had me pulling out my hair for a while.
up
2
michiel ed thalent circle nl
2 years ago
BEWARE:

If incrementing an uninitialized variable you will not get an E_NOTICE error. This may caused you to not find issue's like the visibility of a property.

<?php
class a {
    private
$foo = 1;
}

class
b extends a {
    public function
inc() {
        echo ++
$this->foo;
    }
}

$b = new b;
$b->inc();
?>

Will output 1 and not 2 (if $foo was accessible).
Also no notices are given.
up
3
Brad Proctor
3 years ago
I ran some tests (on PHP 5.3.3) of my own and was surprised to find $i += 1 to be the fastest method of incrementing.  Here are the methods fastest to slowest:

$i += 1;
++$i;
$i++;
$i = $i + 1;
up
3
fred at surleau dot com
13 years ago
Other samples :
$l="A";      $l++; -> $l="B"
$l="A0";     $l++; -> $l="A1"
$l="A9";     $l++; -> $l="B0"
$l="Z99";    $l++; -> $l="AA00"
$l="5Z9";    $l++; -> $l="6A0"
$l="9Z9";    $l++; -> $l="10A0"
$l="9z9";    $l++; -> $l="10a0"
$l="J85410"; $l++; -> $l="J85411"
$l="J99999"; $l++; -> $l="K00000"
$l="K00000"; $l++; -> $l="K00001"
up
-1
johnnythan at nospam dot gmx dot com
2 years ago
If you have a trailing zero and use the increment, the trailing zero will not remain. Was at least unexpected for me at first, although it's logical if you think about it.

<?php
$start
= '01';
$start++;
print
$start; //Outputs '2' not '02'
?>
up
-3
sneskid at hotmail dot com
5 years ago
(related to what "Are Pedersen" wrote)
With arrays it can lead to much confusion if your index variable is altered on the right side of the = sign, either with ++|-- or even when passed to a function by reference..
Consider these (PHP 5):
<?php
$A
[$a] = ++$a; // [1]=1
$B[++$b] = ++$b; // [1]=2
$C[$c+=0] = ++$c; // [0]=1
?>
In 'A' you have to be aware that PHP evaluates $A[$a] last.
Yet in 'B' and 'C' PHP evaluates the index and saves it in a temporary variable.

You can always force PHP to evaluate a variable without explicitly storing it as a named variable first, with a simple "+=0" like in example 'C'.

Compared to 'A', 'C' gives the more logically expected result, when we expect evaluation occurs left to right.
PHP does evaluate left to right BUT it will attempt to cut down on temporary variables, which can lead to confusing results.

So just be aware and use either behavior to your advantage for the desired functionality.
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