PHP 5.4.35 Released

oci_connect

(PHP 5, PECL OCI8 >= 1.1.0)

oci_connectOracle データベースに接続する

説明

resource oci_connect ( string $username , string $password [, string $connection_string [, string $character_set [, int $session_mode ]]] )

他のほとんどの OCI8 コールで必要な接続 ID を返します。

接続の管理及び接続プーリングについての一般的な情報は 接続のハンドリングをご覧下さい。

PHP 5.1.2 (PECL OCI8 1.1) 以降で、接続を閉じるために oci_close()を使用できます。

同一の引数で oci_connect() を呼び出すと、 2回目以降は最初の呼び出しで返された接続ハンドルを返します。 これは、あるハンドル内のトランザクションが、他のハンドル内にも あることを意味します、なぜなら、それらは同一の 基礎となるデータベース接続を使用するからです。 もし2つのハンドルを互いにトランザクション的に分離する必要があれば、 替わりに oci_new_connect() を使用してください。

パラメータ

username

Oracle ユーザー名

password

username に対するパスワード

connection_string

接続先の Oracle インスタンス» Easy Connect 文字列tnsnames.ora ファイルの接続文字列、あるいはローカルの Oracle インスタンス名を指定します。

省略した場合、PHP は環境変数 TWO_TASK (Linux) あるいは LOCAL (Windows) と ORACLE_SID を用いて接続先の Oracle インスタンス を判断します。

Easy Connect 方式を使うには、PHP を Oracle 10g 以降のクライアントライブラリとリンクさせる必要があります。Oracle 10g の Easy Connect 文字列の形式は [//]host_name[:port][/service_name] です。Oracle 11g 以降の場合は、この構文は [//]host_name[:port][/service_name][:server_type][/instance_name] となります。サービス名を調べるには、Oracle のユーティリティ lsnrctl status をデータベースサーバー上で実行します。

tnsnames.ora ファイルは Oracle Net のサーチパス上にあります。 サーチパスに含まれるのは $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/etc です。もうひとつの方法として、 TNS_ADMIN を指定して $TNS_ADMIN/tnsnames.ora を読み込ませることもできます。 ウェブデーモンにそのファイルの読み込み権限を与えておきましょう。

character_set

Oracle クライアントライブラリが使う文字セットを指定します。 これは、データベースが用いる文字セットと一致させる必要はありません。 一致していない場合は、Oracle が最善を尽くしてデータベースの文字セットとの間の変換を行います。 文字セットによっては、この変換結果がうまく使えないこともあります。 また、変換にはそれなりの時間を要します。

省略した場合は、 Oracle クライアントライブラリは環境変数 NLS_LANG の値をもとに文字セットを判断します。

このパラメータを渡すことで、 接続に要する時間を短縮できます。

session_mode

このパラメータは PHP 5 (PECL OCI8 1.1) 以降で使え、 OCI_DEFAULTOCI_SYSOPER そして OCI_SYSDBA といった値を指定することができます。OCI_SYSOPER あるいは OCI_SYSDBA を指定した場合は、 この関数は外部の証明書を使った特権接続の確立を試みます。 特権接続は、デフォルトでは無効になっています。有効にするには oci8.privileged_connectOn に設定しなければなりません。

PHP 5.3 (PECL OCI8 1.3.4) 以降、 OCI_CRED_EXT モードを使えるようになりました。 これは、Oracle に外部認証あるいは OS 認証を使うよう指示します。 どちらかをデータベースで設定しておかなければなりません。 OCI_CRED_EXT フラグを使えるのは、ユーザー名が "/" でパスワードが空のときだけです。 oci8.privileged_connectOn あるいは Off のどちらでもかまいません。

OCI_CRED_EXT は、 OCI_SYSOPER あるいは OCI_SYSDBA モードと組み合わせて使います。

OCI_CRED_EXT は、セキュリティ上の理由により Windows ではサポートされていません。

返り値

接続 ID、もしくはエラー時は FALSE を返します。

例1 Easy Connect 構文を使った基本的な oci_connect() の使用例

<?php

// "localhost" マシン上の XE サービス(例えばデータベース)に接続します。
$conn oci_connect('hr''welcome''localhost/XE');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "&nbsp;") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

例2 Network Connect 名を使った基本的な oci_connect() の使用例

<?php

// tnsnames.ora ファイルに記載された MYDB データベースに接続します。
// MYDB 用の tnsnames.ora エントリーの一例です。
//   MYDB =
//     (DESCRIPTION =
//       (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = mymachine.oracle.com)(PORT = 1521))
//       (CONNECT_DATA =
//         (SERVER = DEDICATED)
//         (SERVICE_NAME = XE)
//       )
//     )

$conn oci_connect('hr''welcome''MYDB');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "&nbsp;") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

例3 oci_connect() での明示的な文字セットの指定

<?php

$conn 
oci_connect('hr''welcome''localhost/XE''AL32UTF8');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "&nbsp;") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

例4 oci_connect() での複数コールの使用

<?php

$c1 
oci_connect("hr""welcome"'localhost/XE');
$c2 oci_connect("hr""welcome"'localhost/XE');

// 同一の基礎となるデータベース接続を使用することを意味する、
// 同一の PHP リソース id を $c1 及び $c2 の両方が示します。
echo "c1 is $c1<br>\n";
echo 
"c2 is $c2<br>\n";

function 
create_table($conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"create table hallo (test varchar2(64))");
    
oci_execute($stmt);
    echo 
"Created table<br>\n";
}

function 
drop_table($conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"drop table hallo");
    
oci_execute($stmt);
    echo 
"Dropped table<br>\n";
}

function 
insert_data($connname$conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"insert into hallo
              values(to_char(sysdate,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'))"
);
    
oci_execute($stmtOCI_DEFAULT);
    echo 
"$connname inserted row without committing<br>\n";
}

function 
rollback($connname$conn)
{
    
oci_rollback($conn);
    echo 
"$connname rollback<br>\n";
}

function 
select_data($connname$conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"select * from hallo");
    
oci_execute($stmtOCI_DEFAULT);
    echo 
"$connname ----selecting<br>\n";
    while (
oci_fetch($stmt)) {
        echo 
"    " oci_result($stmt"TEST") . "<br>\n";
    }
    echo 
"$connname ----done<br>\n";
}

create_table($c1);

insert_data('c1'$c1);   // c1 を使用して行を挿入
sleep(2);                 // 2行目で異なるタイムスタンプを表示するためにスリープします
insert_data('c2'$c2);   // c2 を使用して行を挿入

select_data('c1'$c1);   // 両方の挿入結果が返されます
select_data('c2'$c2);   // 両方の挿入結果が返されます

rollback('c1'$c1);      // c1 を使用してロールパック

select_data('c1'$c1);   // 両方の挿入行為がロールバックされました
select_data('c2'$c2);

drop_table($c1);

// 接続のうちの一つを閉じると、その PHP 変数が利用できなくなりますが、
// もう一つは使用できます。
oci_close($c1);
echo 
"c1 is $c1<br>\n";
echo 
"c2 is $c2<br>\n";


// 出力です。
//    c1 is Resource id #5
//    c2 is Resource id #5
//    Created table
//    c1 inserted row without committing
//    c2 inserted row without committing
//    c1 ----selecting
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:43
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:45
//    c1 ----done
//    c2 ----selecting
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:43
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:45
//    c2 ----done
//    c1 rollback
//    c1 ----selecting
//    c1 ----done
//    c2 ----selecting
//    c2 ----done
//    Dropped table
//    c1 is 
//    c2 is Resource id #5

?>

注意

注意:

OCI8 拡張モジュールのインストールや設定に不備があると、 接続時に問題やエラーが発生します。解決策は インストール/設定 を参照ください。

参考

  • oci_pconnect() - 持続的接続を使用してOracle データベースに接続する
  • oci_new_connect() - 一意な接続を使って Oracle サーバーへ接続する
  • oci_close() - Oracleとの接続を閉じる

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 12 notes

up
2
M0no at ethonfusino dot com
11 years ago
If your oracle database is on a remote system within your local network and you don't want to worry about the tnsnames file you can try this.

$db = "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.XX.XXX)(PORT = 1521)))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=XXXX)))";

$c1 = ocilogon("name","password",$db);

Hope this helps someone.
up
1
Leandro da Cunha Campos
5 years ago
ONE ALTERNATIVE OF CONNECT IN ORACLE RAC "Real Application Clusters"

<?php
$dbstr
="(DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =ip1)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = banco)
(INSTANCE_NAME = banco1)))"
;

$dbstr1 ="(DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =ip2)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = banco)
(INSTANCE_NAME = banco2)))"
;

if(!@(
$conn = oci_connect('user','password',$dbstr1)))
{
$conn = oci_connect('user','password',$dbstr) or die (ocierror()); }
?>
up
1
sixd at php dot net
6 years ago
If you want to specify a connection timeout in case there is network problem, you can edit the client side (e.g. PHP side) sqlnet.ora file and set SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT. This sets the upper time limit for establishing a connection right through to the DB, including the time for attempts to connect to other services.   It is available from Oracle 10.2.0.3 onwards.

In Oracle 11.1, a slightly lighter-weight solution TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT was introduced.  It also is a sqlnet.ora parameter.  It bounds just the TCP connection establishment time, which is mostly where connection problem are seen.

The client sqlnet.ora file should be put in the same directory as the tnsnames.ora file.
up
1
ben at onshop dot co dot uk
9 years ago
There is a useful solution to the problem of securing connection information in the PHP Cookbook (O'Reilly) by David Sklar and Adam Trachtenberg. They propose using 'SetEnv' in the Apache configuration and then accessing the values from within a script using $_SERVER.

Unfortunately using the 'SetEnv' solution exposes your connection information to all users of that virtual host. If they run phpinfo.php or display $_SERVER, I found that they will see the password from any file under the root of that virtual host.

To restrict exposure to a particular directory or specific file:

1. First put an 'Include' to the secret file in httpd.conf. For example:

Include "/web/private/secret.txt"

2. In the password file, use the 'SetEnvIf' directive to enable the Environment variables by directory only or within a specific file. For example:

- For all files in the directory:

SetEnvIf Request_URI "/path/to/my/directory" ORACLE_PASS=5gHj790j

- For a specific file in the directory

SetEnvIf Request_URI "/path/to/my/directory/connection.oracle.php" ORACLE_PASS=5gHj790j
up
0
peter at goldthorp dot com
3 years ago
I started getting "ORA-12514: TNS:listener does not currently know of service requested in connect descriptor" errors when I upgraded my database instance from 10.2 to 11.2.  For some reason it would not resolve the oci_connect calls with the Easy Connect syntax (easy connect calls from sqlplus were fine).  I was able to workaround the issue by passing a tns connect string:

<?php
$db
= "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.XX.XXX)(PORT = 1521)))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=XXXX)))";

$c1 = oci_connect("name","password",$db);
?>
up
0
jtacon at php dot net
3 years ago
If you upgrades the OCI8, be sure to use the latest oracle instantclient version, otherwise you can receive an "ORA-24315: illegal attribute type" when trying to connect due to incompatibility with some versions.

HTH,
Javier Tacón
up
0
Jonathon Robinson
4 years ago
Regarding the following statement in the documentation:
"The second and subsequent calls to oci_connect() with the same parameters will return the connection handle returned from the first call."

There's one caveat here.  Subsequent calls to oci_connect() will only return the same connection handle as the first call as long as a reference is held to the original handle.

For example, the following code will generate *one* connection handle:

<?php
$dbh
= oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
// Do stuff
$dbh = oci_connect$username, $password, $conn_info);
// Do more stuff

The follow code will generate *two* connection handles:
getData();
// Do stuff
getData();
// Do more stuff

getData() {
   
$dbh = oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
   
// Do stuff
}
?>

This is the result of PHP garbage collecting the handle at the end of the method scope.

If you want to isolate your DB layer through function calls but still want to leverage the fact that oci_connect can return the same handle, just keep a reference to the handle like so:

<?php
getData
($username, $password, $conn_info) {
   
$dbh = oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
   
$key = hash('md5', "$username|$password|$conn_info");
   
$GLOBALS[$key] = $dbh;
   
// Do stuff
}
?>

I originally logged this as a bug but apparently this is the expected behaviour, likely because oci_close($dbh) just calls unset($dbh).
up
0
drew dot carmichael at gmail dot com
5 years ago
When using the OCI_CRED_EXT in php
if the ENV $ORACLE_SID is set the DB does not need to be specified explicitly and the connection will fail unless you provide a NULL DB value when creating the connection.

The $ORACLE_SID trumps the TNS name look up for the connection. So even a manual connection string in the DB parameter will fail.

So when the $ORACLE_SID Env is set a NULL passed instead of the DB name connects successfully.

Hope this saves some hair pulling when moving to %.3 and OS Authentications
up
0
sebastien.barbieri _at_ gmail dot com
8 years ago
When you are using Oracle 9.2+ I would say that you MUST use the CHARSET parameter.

Of course, you will not notice it until there is accented character... so just specify it and you will avoid a big headache.

So for example here is our Oracle internal conf:
select * from nls_database_parameters;

PARAMETER                      VALUE
------------------------------ ----------------------------------------

NLS_LANGUAGE                   AMERICAN
NLS_TERRITORY                  AMERICA
NLS_ISO_CURRENCY               AMERICA
NLS_CHARACTERSET               WE8ISO8859P15


And there our oci_connect call:

$dbch=ocilogon($user,$pass,$connectString,"WE8ISO8859P15");

Without that, you will get question mark (inversed), squares… instead of most accented character.

Don’t forget to use that for writing as well as for reading.
up
-1
Anonymous
2 years ago
How to connect from PHP to an Oracle database using OID (Oracle Internet Directory):

OID is like a lookup index that contains connection strings for connecting to various databases. Without OID, a database connection string would be stored directly in the code settings and used by the PHP code to connect to a database. With OID, a lookup can be made to the OID LDAP to acquire the database connection string. Then the PHP code will use the acquired database connection string to connect to the database as before.

OID allows a DBA to manage/change which database server that an application uses without having to change any database settings in the PHP application itself or on the application server.

Here are the basic steps for PHP to connect to a database via OID:

- The DBA should provide you the connection information for the OID LDAP as well as the username/password for the database connection.
- Connect to the OID LDAP using the provided information
- Search for the appropriate LDAP record
- Get the connection string data from the record attribute, \&quot;orclnetdescstring\&quot;
- Close the LDAP connection
- Use the acquired connection string data to connect to the database as usual using the provided database username/password.

Here is basic sample code to do this:

// Get connection string from OID LDAP

    $ds=ldap_connect($servername,$serverport); // Connect to ldap
    $r=ldap_bind($ds); // Bind to ldap
    $sr = ldap_search($ds, \&quot;cn=OracleContext,dc=___,dc=___,dc=___\&quot;, \&quot;cn=$sid\&quot;); // Run query
    $info = ldap_get_entries($ds, $sr); // Get entries
    ldap_close($ds); // Close connection

    $dbconnectstring = $info[0][\&quot;orclnetdescstring\&quot;][0]; // Extract db connect string from ldap search result array

// Connect to database using acquired connection string from OID

    $dbconnection = oci_connect ($username,$password,$dbconnectstring);
up
-2
blake dot lewis at gmail dot com
1 year ago
Using ldap for Oracle name resolution:

  The web server will need the environmental variable TNS_ADMIN='Directory of tnsname.ora' unless the default location is used. I use '/etc/tns_admin'. Confirm using the phpinfo().

  There are three files needed in the TNS_ADMIN location: tnsnames.ora, sqlnet.ora and ldap.ora. If you are only using ldap, tnsnames.ora is not needed.

  To sqlnet.ora add:
     NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(TNSNAMES,LDAP)

  To ldap.ora add:
     DIRECTORY_SERVERS=(ldap_server_fqdn:port)
     DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT=""
     DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE=OID

  For a quick and dirty ldap tnsnames server use tnsManager by Dave Berry. Oracle OID or Openldap can used, but are complicated to setup. tnsManager is a no brainer. The quick part: give it a tnsnames.ora file and start it up. The dirty parts: I can't get Toad and SQLDeveloper to work with it, it ignores the domain and it is no longer being maintained.

  The order of values in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH in sqlnet.ora determines which look up 'adapter' is used, in this case it is tnsnames.ora file and then ldap. I use ldap for general consumption and tnsnames.ora file to override ldap or entries that are not for general consumption.

  If you have the full Oracle client you have tnsping. 'tnsping ORACLE_SID' will tell you what adapter you are using: 'Used LDAP adapter to resolve the alias'.

<?php
 
echo system("/PATH/tnsping ".$ORACLE_SID." 2>&1")."<br />";
  echo
'TNS_ADMIN='.getenv('TNS_ADMIN');
?>

ISSUE:
  If connecting with only ORACLE_SID and not ORACLE_SID.DB_DOMAIN, the value of NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN from sqlnet.ora is appended, then for some reason PHP tries the HOSTNAME adapter, and if the database name resolves in DNS, it will fail connecting using the database name as the hostname, because neither SID nor SERVICE_NAME are defined.
  If using tnsManager append '.ANY_DOMAIN' to $ORACLE_SID to hack around the issue above.

  I have tested with:
       11.1.0.7 full client and PHP 5.1.6
       11.2.0.2 full client and PHP 5.4.11

  I have heard that LDAP lookup does not work with older instantclients.
up
-3
blake dot lewis at gmail dot com
1 year ago
Using ldap for Oracle name resolution:

  The web server needs the environmental variable TNS_ADMIN='Directory of tnsname.ora'. I use '/etc/tns_admin'. Confirm using the phpinfo() function.

  There are three files needed in the TNS_ADMIN location: tnsnames.ora, sqlnet.ora and ldap.ora. If you are only using ldap, tnsnames.ora is not needed.

  To sqlnet.ora add:
     NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(TNSNAMES,LDAP)

  To ldap.ora add:
     DIRECTORY_SERVERS=(ldap_fqdn_hostname:1575)
     DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT=""
     DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE=OID

  For a quick and dirty ldap tnsnames server use tnsManager by Dave Berry. Oracle OID or Openldap can used, but are complicated to setup. tnsManager is a no brainer. The default port is 1575.

  The order of values in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH from sqlnet.ora determines which look up 'adapter' is used first, in this case it is tnsnames.ora file and then ldap. I use ldap for general consumption and tnsnames.ora file to override ldap or entries that are not for general consumption.

  If you have the full Oracle client you have tnsping. 'tnsping ORACLE_SID' will tell you what adapter you are using: 'Used LDAP adapter to resolve the alias'.

<?php
 
echo system("/PATH/tnsping ".$ORACLE_SID." 2>&1")."<br />";
  echo
'TNS_ADMIN='.getenv('TNS_ADMIN');
?>

ISSUE:
  For some reason PHP tries the HOSTNAME adapter first, and if the database name resolves in DNS, it will try connecting using the database name as the hostname with no SID or SERVICE_NAME defined. All other Oracle clients I have used will not try the HOSTNAME adapter unless it is listed in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH.
  I have heard that LDAP look up does not work with older instantclients.
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